Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids. Molecular Organization (explain) Atom: smallest unit Element: made of one type of atom CO 2 NaCl C 6 H 12."— Presentation transcript:
Molecular Organization (explain) Atom: smallest unit Element: made of one type of atom CO 2 NaCl C 6 H 12 O 6 Molecule: Bonding of 1 or more elements Compound: Combination of 2 or more elements Cell: Collection of compounds, smallest unit of living organism OR
6 Essential Elements CHNOPS These six elements make up all living organisms.
Carbon is an element. Carbon is the basis of all living things + + + + + + C 6 carbon S 12.11 How many protons? How many neutrons? How many electrons? 6 atomic number 6 = atomic mass 2 6 Protons = atomic #Electrons = protonsneutrons= mass -- atomic #
Types of Bonds Covalent Bonds – sharing of electrons Ionic Bonds – gaining or losing electrons Hydrogen Bonds – how polar molecules “stick” together. (not a chemical bond)
Organic vs. Inorganic Organic Compounds contain a carbon- hydrogen bond (C 6 H 12 O 6, CH 4 ) Inorganic Compounds do not contain a carbon-hydrogen bond (CO 2, H 2 O) C 6 H 12 O 6
Functional Groups Functional groups bond to the carbon in place of an H to give the compound unique chemical and physical properties. 1. C C C H H OH H H O H Carboxyl Group Found in Proteins and Lipids (fatty acids)
Functional Groups 2. 3. Hydroxyl Group C C H H OH H H H Phosphate Group Found in Carbohydrates and Lipids (glycerol) Found in Nucleic Acids C C H H O H H H O O O P _ _
4. Functional Groups 5. C C H H N H H H H H Amine Group C C H H C H H H H O Carbonyl Group Found in Proteins Found in Carbohydrates
Mini Quiz #1 1. Give the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the following elements: – Carbon (atomic # 6, atomic mass=12g) – Sulfur (atomic #=16, atomic mass = 32) – Oxygen (atomic #=8, atomic mass=16) 2. Is the compound C6H12O6 organic or inorganic? Why or why not? 3. Is water an organic compound? Why or why not? 4. How are monomers similar to links in a chain? 5. Provide the name and the elements present for the following functional groups: – Carbohydrates --Lipids
Building Organic Compounds Monomers Polymer How are monomers similar to links in a chain?
Carbohydrates 1. Elements: C, H, O 2. Monomers: Monosaccharide 3. Structure: C H O H H C C C C C H H H H H H H H H O O O O O Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 )
Many monosaccharides bonded together form polysaccharides. Building Carbohydrates C 6 H 12 O 6 Polysaccharide Polysaccharides are known as starches. Will the taste of starches be the same as sugars? How many water molecules would be removed by making the polysaccharide?
Functions of Carbohydrates To provide a quick source of energy (by breaking the C-H bonds) C 6 H 12 O 6 Energy Animals store excess sugars as a starch known as glycogen. Plants store excess sugars as a starch known as cellulose.
Proteins 1.Elements: C, H, O, N, S 2.Monomer: Amino Acids (20) 3.Structure: “R” is the functional group that varies N H H H O R C C O H
Functions of Proteins Proteins are a major structural component for living organisms (ex. muscle) Proteins function as enzymes to carry out chemical reactions in the body.
Functions of Proteins Some hormones are protein (peptide hormones). Proteins also function to transport or carry substances in and out of cells. Cell membrane channel protein
Lipids 1.Elements: C, H, O 2.Monomer: Technically, none 3.Structure: C C C H H H H H H H H O O O C C C C O O H H H H H H H H CC O O C C H H H H H H H H H H O O C C C C H H H H H H Glycerol Fatty Acid Tails
Lipids The different types of lipids are determined by the number of C-H bonds in the fatty acid chain. C C C C O O H H H H H H H H Saturated Fatty Acid: maximum number of C-H bonds. Unsaturated Fatty Acid: contains one double C-C bond. CC O O C C H H H H H H Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid: many double C-C bonds. O O C C C C H H H H H H CC H H
Functions of Lipids Lipids store energy, due to their numerous C- H bonds. Energy Because they are insoluble in water (polar), lipids are found in animal cell membranes. Fats, oils, waxes and many hormones (steroids) are lipids
Nucleic Acids 1.Elements: C, H, O, N, P 2.Monomer: nucleotide 3.Structure: H H2H2 H H H3H3 H H H H H O O O CC C N N P O O O C C C C C O O O C C 1. 2. 3. Adenine
Store genetic code (ATCG) - DNA Function of Nucleic Acids Help make proteins (RNA) Remember, all living organisms share a universal genetic code!
Overview Now you should fill in the notes page that I have provided to you (the 2 front/back pages) The 4 biomolecules: – Carbohydrates – Lipids – Proteins – Nucleic acids Other terms for biomolecules: – Carbon compounds – Organic compounds – Organic molecules – macromolecules
Carbohydrates Elements Present Used by organisms for... Building Block Related Terms & Info carbon hydrogen oxygen C:H:O = 1: 2 : 1 always energy structure Monosaccharides (simple sugars) ex: glucoseglucose C 6 H 12 O 6 dissaccharide = 2 connected monosaccarides (ex: maltose) polysaccharide 3 or more connected monosaccarides (ex: starch, glycogen, chitin, cellulose)
Proteins amino acids Elements PresentUsed by organisms for...Related Terms & Info carbon hydrogen oxygen NITROGEN (always those 4) phosphorus sulfur (possibly) structure & movement (muscles) enzymes antibodies hormones pigments peptide bond = the bond that holds amino acids together in protein molecules dipeptide = two connected amino acids polypeptide = 3 or more connected amino acids Building Block of Proteins:
Lipids fatty acid : glycerol : Elements Present Used by Organisms for... Related Terms & Info Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen ONLY ! There is no specific H:O ratio. Stored Energy Structure (important part of cell membranes) saturated fat = C-C bonds are all single bonds unsaturated fat = contain at least one double or triple C-C bond Building Blocks of Lipids
Nucleic Acids DNARNA FULL NAME Deoxyribonucleic acidRibonucleic acid BASIC STRUCTURE 2 long twisting strands of nucleotides in the form of a "double helix" 1 single strand of nucleotides NUCLEOTIDE SUGAR DeoxyriboseRibose NITROGENOUS BASES guanine (G) cytosine (C) adenine (A) thymine (T) guanine (G) cytosine (C) adenine (A) uracil (U) LOCATION IN A CELL Nucleus (the chromosomes) Nucleus, in the cytoplasm, & at the ribosomes FUNCTION the hereditary material of a cell, directs & controls cell activities involved in protein synthesis
Mini Quiz #2 1) Fructose is a compound found in many fruits which give them their sweet taste. The suffix “ose” lets us know that fructose can be classified as a- a)Carbonb) starch c)sugard)protein 2) Starch and sugar are two types of _________. 3) The biomolecule which has functional groups that contain elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen is________.