Presentation on theme: "1 Motivating Office Employees Chapter 10. 2 Motivation is Affected by a Number of Basic Human Traits Ability Aptitude Perceptions Self-confidence Values."— Presentation transcript:
2 Motivation is Affected by a Number of Basic Human Traits Ability Aptitude Perceptions Self-confidence Values Interests Emotions Needs Personality
3 Ability--determines how capable an individual is to carry out designated job duties. Aptitude--determines one’s potential for performing specific tasks. Perceptions--involves how one views his or her “world.” Self-concept--involves how one perceives himself or herself. Values--are a significant determinant of how one behaves.
4 Interests--are a significant determinant of how one views his or her job. Emotions--involves one’s feelings about something. Needs--involves one’s motivation to attain certain goals. Personality--involves one’s openness, level of aggression, level of patience, and level of cooperation.
5 Motivational Process A person’s behavior is a response to stimuli associated with an inner state of disequilibrium resulting from a need, desire, or expectancy. Disequilibrium state is accompanied by anticipation and produces behavior or actions directed toward goal attainment. Individual anticipates that goal achievement will produce a satisfying experience, which will restore equilibrium.
6 Theories of Motivation Hierarchy of Needs Theory Motivation-Hygiene Theory Needs Theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Reinforcement Theory
7 Hierarchy of Needs Theory Developed by A. H. Maslow. Human needs exist at 5 basic levels (in order). Physiological needs Safety needs Belonging and love needs Esteem needs Self-actualization needs Higher level needs are unimportant until lower level needs are satisfied. Higher level needs are unimportant until lower level needs are satisfied.
8 Physiological Needs Safety Needs Belonging and Love Needs Include food, water, oxygen, rest, muscular activity, and freedom from extreme danger. Include clothing, shelter, and freedom from physical danger, as well as job security and fringe benefits for employed individuals. Include the need for belonging to a group, need for companionship, need for love or affection, and need for socializing.
9 Esteem Needs Self-actualization Needs Include self-esteem and esteem of others. Self-esteem Esteem of others Esteem of others Includes desire for achievement, self-respect, confidence, mastery. Includes recognition, attention, prestige, status. Refer to one’s desire to achieve maximum potential, or to become what one is capable of becoming.
10 Motivation-Hygiene Theory Developed by Frederick Herzberg. Based on motivators and hygiene factors.
11 Motivators Factors that produce positive attitudes or job satisfaction; however, their absence does not necessarily produce job dissatisfaction. AchievementResponsibility RecognitionAdvancement Work itselfGrowth
12 Hygiene Factors Factors that produce job dissatisfaction; however, their presence at expected levels does not produce job satisfaction. Company policy and administration Supervisors and relationships with supervisors Working conditions Salary Interpersonal relations Personal life Relationship with subordinates Status Security
13 Needs Theory Developed by David McClelland. Findings: 1. Individuals with high need for achievement willingly accept responsibility for their work and actions. 2. Individuals with high need for power desire to control other people and have a strong influence on the behavior of others. 3. Individuals with a high need for affiliation tend to be socially interactive.
14 Equity Theory Motivation results from an individual’s desire to reduce feelings of inequity that result when he or she finds 1. An imbalance in the ratio between his or her input and outcome. 2. An imbalance when comparing his or her input-outcome ratio with that of others. Employees react to imbalance ratio by 1. Altering their input level. 2. Altering their outcome expectation. 3. Changing the base of their input-outcome expectation.
15 Expectancy Theory Developed by Victor Vroom. Theory states that the stronger the perceived relationship between effort and outcome, the higher the employee motivation will be. Motivation occurs when these conditions are present: 1. The employee believes that additional effort will be worthwhile. 2. The employee believes that higher perform- ance will result in greater outcomes or rewards. 3. The employee places a high value on the outcomes or reward.
16 Reinforcement Theory (1 or 2) Reinforcement Theory (1 or 2) Developed by B. F. Skinner. Motivation is a function of the consequences of behavior. Behavior that is reinforced tends to be repeated; nonreinforced behavior tends not to be repeated. Uses positive reinforcement, which is designed to increase the strength or frequency of desired behavior by positively reinforcing each occur- rence of desired behavior.
17 Reinforcement Theory (2 or 2) Reinforcement Theory (2 or 2) Uses two types of rewards: Contingent Reward Contingent Reward Noncontingent Reward Noncontingent Reward Reward is linked to a specific incident of an employee’s previous behavior. Reward is not linked to specific incident of an employee’s behavior.
18 Goals Are an important component of the process of motivating employees. Employees without goals often lack motivation. Attributes of goals: Concreteness of goals Feedback on goal attainment Probability of goal attainment Participation in setting goals Amount of dedication in goal attainment
19 Employees’ Values An important component of motivation, change from time to time.
20 2. More leisure time. 3. Having rewards related to job performance. 5. Participating in decisions about things that affect them. Contemporary employees desire 4. Work that is challenging and worthwhile. 1. Having achievement recognized by the organization. 6. Effective communication from management. 7. Job-related growth opportunities. 8. Increased job creativity.
21 Techniques Used to Motivate Employees Job enrichment Employee participation Management by objectives Flextime Incentives Job sharing Team building Self-management work teams Gain sharing Telecommuting
22 Frustration Often results when employees are unable to succeed in goal attainment. Frustration is exhibited in several ways 1. Selecting alternative goals they can accomplish. 2. Becoming aggressive. 3. Becoming anxious. 4. Developing a defense mechanism. 5. Taking corrective action.