2 Meat.Meat and poultry and are important foods providing much of the protein people need for the growth and repair of our bodies while at the same time providing a source of energy.Meat and poultry are cooked by a wide range of different cookery methods, these being divided into wet or dry methods. Different cuts, joints and pieces of meat and poultry will require varying methods depending on the individual meat and poultry.Some meat can be cooked quickly because it does not require a prolonged cooking method to tenderise it, it is already tender as a cut or joint e.g. fillet steak, rump or sirloin from beef, leg of lamb or loin or leg of pork. Even so these cuts will need a certain degree of cooking before they are safe to serve.
3 What Is Meat?Generally it helps to try and understand where on the animal the cut or joint comes from and what its function is. For example, the fillet is from the muscle which provides a balancing mechanism, and does no mechanical work other than provide stability; this cut is one of the most tender from animals i.e. fillet of beef, lamb, pork veal or venison.In shin or shank of beef, however, these parts have to provide support for the animal and are strained by the sheet weight and work required of them. These cuts are tough with strong sinews and need prolonged cooking.These cuts are used for a limited number of dishes such as soups or stocks.
4 Structure Of Meat.Lean meat is composed of bundles of long thin muscle fibres.Fibres are filled with:Water.Protein.Minerals.Extractives.
5 When cooking meat, think about the structure of the food you are preparing for cooking. Lean flesh of meat is composed of fibrous muscles, bond together by connective tissues.The size and thickness of the fibres in the muscle will determine the grain and texture of the meat. Younger animals, with less developed muscle fibres, provide a more tender meat.
6 The amount, condition and distribution of fat on a meat carcass will also affect tenderness and flavour.Where fat is found between the muscle fibres, the meat is said to be marbled.This type of meat will be more tender and moist and flavourful.These three qualities are also enhanced in all meats by a process of hanging, which matures the meat before the carcass is dissected.
7 Meat covers the following: Beef.Veal.Lamb.Mutton.Pork.Bacon.
8 Quality points of Beef.The following list indicates the quality points to look for when purchasing beef.Moist, firm with bright red flesh.There should be no excessive fat.The lean meat should be flecked with fat which is known as marbling.The fat should be dry, creamy white in colour and odourless.The bones should not be brittle and when cut should have a bloody interior.
9 StorageBeef is purchased in hind or fore quarters and must be hung in a chilled temperature for up to 14 days.During this period the meat becomes tender and the flavour develops as a result of an enzymic reaction and the natural relaxation after rigor mortis.The period of hanging is longer than with other types of meat because the animal is older when slaughtered.
10 Joints should be stored in deep trays under refrigeration and the surplus blood drained from the trays regularly.Frozen joints of beef must be kept at a temperature of –18°C and correctly defrosted before use.Nowadays it is common to purchase chilled vacuum packed joints and cuts of beef. When required the clear wrapping is removed and the meat allowed to stand in a refrigerator until the colour becomes normal.Once opened this type of meat must be used quickly. Vacuum packed meat should be stored at 0°C.
11 Joints from a Hindquarter of Beef. Shin.Topside.Silverside.Thick Flank.Rump.Sirloin.Wing Rib.Thin flank.Fillet.Total weight 180 lbs. The hindquarter produces prime cuts of beef.
13 Joints from a Forequarter of Beef. 10. Fore Rib.11. Middle Rib.12. Chuck Rib.13. Sticking Piece.14. Plate.15. Brisket.16. Leg of Mutton Cut.17. Shank.Total weight 170 lbs.
14 Methods of Cooking. 10. Fore Rib. Roasting. 11. Middle Rib. Braising, Stewing.12. Chuck Rib. Stewing.13. Sticking Piece. Stewing, Mincing.14. Plate. Stewing, Mincing.15. Brisket. Fresh Boiling.16. Leg of Mutton Cut. Stewing, Mincing.17. Shank. Clarification of Consommé.
15 Small Cuts of Beef Suitable for Grilling & Frying. All small cuts of beef which are suited for grilling or shallow frying are referred to as steaks. All steaks come from one of the following three joints.Fillet.Sirloin.Rump.
16 A Typical Fillet. Likely to Weigh 3 Kg. Chateaubriand (double fillet steak).Cut from the head of the fillet, and for more than two portions between 300 gms – 1 kg (12 ozs – 1 lb) can be obtained.Fillet steak.4 – 5 steaks can be obtained each of 100 – 150 gms (4 – 6 ozs).Tournedos steaks.Approximately 6 – 8 at 100 gms (4 ozs). Each steak should be tied to form a regular shape.Tail of fillet.This is cut into julienne or minced according to its intended use.
17 Sirloin. Minute steaks. Sirloin steaks. Porterhouse and T-bone Steaks. Cut each steak approximately 1 cm thick and flatten with a cutlet bat making it as thin as possible. If necessary trim to a regular shape.Sirloin steaks.Cut into 1 – 2 cm slices and trim to about (entrecotes) 150 gms (6 ozs).Porterhouse and T-bone Steaks.Porterhouse steaks are cut including the bone from the rib end of the sirloin.T-bone steaks are cut from the rump end of the sirloin including bone and fillet.
18 Rump.The middle portion from each slice is considered to produce the best steak and are known as point steaks.Some menus feature a 'plank steak'. This is a complete slice for more than two customers and is divided into portions after cooking.