8Nutrients in BeefProtein - For growth, repair, and replacement of body cells, and tissues.complete - animal sourcesincomplete - plant sources which must be used in combinationEg. peanut butter and bread
9B Vitamins - eg. Thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, folic acid, and cobalamin(B12) Maintains healthy skin.Normal function of the nervous system.
10Iron (Mineral) - Necessary part of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide.Prevents iron-deficiency anemia.
11InspectionThe meat inspection stamp tells the consumer that the meat has been federally inspected and that it meets the requirements for food safety.
12Based on the age, quality, and the proportion of fat to lean meat. GradingBased on the age, quality, and the proportion of fat to lean meat.Colour, texture, and firmness of lean and fat are also taken into account.
13MarblingRefers to the microscopic streaks of fat throughout the lean part of the red meat.
14Grades USDA: Prime Choice Select A - firm lean, fine-grained and a bright colour with at least a trace of marbling. Exterior fat is white or slightly tinged with red or amber.B - moderately-firm lean, from bright red to a dark red. Exterior fat is white or a yellowish tinge. No minimum marbling required.D - mature cows or steers and further grade divisions are provided on the basis of the characteristics of fat and the amount of marbling.E - as above
15The Structure of Beef Muscle fibres Bands of connective tissue (tough fibres which hold the muscle fibres together). Two types:CollagenElastin
16Collagen - White bands of connective tissue which can be softened to gelatin by moist heat cooking. Elastin - Yellow, tough bands of connective tissue which cannot be softened.
17Factors Affecting the Tenderness of a Cut of Beef Location of Cut on the CarcassAge of the AnimalLength of Aging TimeAmount of MarblingQuality of the Beef
18Location of Cut on the Carcass TenderMedium TenderLess Tender
19Older animals will have received more exercise. Age of the AnimalBeef from younger animals will be more tender (top picture), due to less connective tissue.Older animals will have received more exercise.
20Length of Aging TimeCarcasses are allowed to hang for approximately days.Enzymes in the beef help to tenderize the connective tissues.
21Amount of MarblingThe more marbling the beef has, the more tender it will be.Quality of the BeefThe higher the quality, the more tender it will be.
22How Much to Buy? Boneless meat - 1/4 lb./serving Bone-in meat - 1/2 lb./servingBony meat - 3/4-1 lb./servingWhen shopping for meat, consider:amount of bone, fat, and gristlecooking lossserving size
24Before you start . . .do you know where the cut comes from on the animal in order to determine its degree of tenderness?do you know whether a dry or moist heat method is required?do you know which specific cooking method to use?
25The answer to those three questions could mean the difference between a sumptuous repast and a total disaster!If you want to go for the sumptuous repast then pay close attention . . .
31Meat is often the most expensive item on the food bill. Be a wise consumer. Learn how to judge quality, cuts, grades to get the most for your money.Less expensive cuts give the same nutrients as the more expensive cuts.
32ChuckCuts from the Chuck include the Blade and Cross Rib. They may come in the form of roasts or steaks.eg. Blade Roast, Cross Rib Roast, Blade Steak, Cross Rib Steak, Pot Roast
33Brisket/Fore Shank Brisket may be flat or rolled. Shank or heel cuts come from either the Fore Shank or the Hind Shank.
34PlateShort Ribs come from the Plate area of the carcass.
35FlankFlank Steak is the most common cut from the Flank.
36Hip/Hind Shank Shank and heel cuts come from the leg of the animal. Round steak, Sirloin Tip steak, Eye of the Round, Rump Roast, and the Baron of Beef are all examples of cuts from the Hip.Shank and heel cuts come from the leg of the animal.
37SirloinSirloin Steak, regular or boneless, is the most common cut from this area.
38LoinThe loin is known for its steaks - Wing, T-bone, Porterhouse, Tenderloin (Filet Mignon), and Strip Loin.It is also the most expensive section of the carcass as it is the most tender.
39T-Bone Steak Wing Steak Porterhouse Steak As one moves down the carcass more tenderloin is found on the steak (right side of bone).
40RibCuts from the Rib include Rib Eye Steak, Prime Rib Roast and Prime Rib Steak.This area is also expensive because of its degree of tenderness.
41A Word about Ground Beef and Stewing Beef Ground beef and stewing beef may come from either medium tender or less tender cuts where the meat has been mechanically ground to tenderize it.
43You May Know Them by Their Bones ! Whereas, bones from less tender cuts of meat are round and knobby.Bones from tender cuts of meat are flat.Evans, T.M. and Greene, D. (1973). The Meat Book. p. 19.
44To Cook Tender Cuts of Meat . . . Use dry heat methods such as:roastingfryingbroilingbarbecuingThere is no liquid nor is there a lid. Steam is not needed because there is little connective tissue. Tender cuts are more flavourful when cooked this way.
45Ways to Tenderize Less Tender Meat Use moist heat - lid holds in the liquid that has been turned to steam to soften connective tissue.Mechanical - breaks or cuts connective tissue. Examples include grinding, pounding, scoring, and cubing.Chemical - acid dissolves connective tissue. Examples include marinating meat in tomato sauce.
46To Cook Less Tender Cuts of Meat . . . Use moist heat methods such as :stewingpot roastingoven or top-of-the-stove braisingLiquid and a lid are used to produce steam which penetrates the meat and softens the connective tissue.Top-of-the-stove braising is like cooking Swiss Steak. The meat is pounded or scored to break the connective tissue. It is then dipped in seasoned flour, then browned on all sides in hot fat in fry pan. A small amount of liquid is then added, coverend and simmered until done.Oven-braising is like roasting but in a small amount of liquid and covered. The lid is only removed for the last 45 minutes.For pot roasting, the lid is on for the whole time. More liquid is added during the cooking if needed. One cup is what is added at the beginning. Vegetables may be added for the final 1/2 hour.
47To Cook Medium Tender Cuts of Meat. . Either dry or moist heat methods may be used.However, use moist heat for extra tenderness.
48ReferencesEvans, T.M. and Greene, D. (1973). The Meat Book. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons pp.Beef Information CentrePersonal notesFoods for Today: Text Chapter 36