2Meat.Meat and poultry and are important foods providing much of the protein people need for the growth and repair of our bodies while at the same time providing a source of energy.Meat and poultry are cooked by a wide range of different cookery methods, these being divided into wet or dry methods. Different cuts, joints and pieces of meat and poultry will require varying methods depending on the individual meat and poultry.
3Some meat can be cooked quickly because it does not require a prolonged cooking method to tenderise it, it is already tender as a cut or joint e.g. fillet steak, rump or sirloin from beef, leg of lamb or loin or leg of pork. Even so these cuts will need a certain degree of cooking before they are safe to serve.
4What Is Meat?Generally it helps to try and understand where on the animal the cut or joint comes from and what its function is. For example, the fillet is from the muscle which provides a balancing mechanism, and does no mechanical work other than provide stability; this cut is one of the most tender from animals i.e. fillet of beef, lamb, pork veal or venison.
5In shin or shank of beef, however, these parts have to provide support for the animal and are strained by the sheer weight and work required of them. These cuts are tough with strong sinews and need prolonged cooking.These cuts are used for a limited number of dishes such as soups or stocks.
6Structure Of Meat.Lean meat is composed of bundles of long thin muscle fibres.Fibres are filled with:Water.Protein.Minerals.Extractives.
7When cooking meat, think about the structure of the food you are preparing for cooking. Lean flesh of meat is composed of fibrous muscles, bond together by connective tissues.The size and thickness of the fibres in the muscle will determine the grain and texture of the meat. Younger animals, with less developed muscle fibres, provide a more tender meat.
8The amount, condition and distribution of fat on a meat carcass will also affect tenderness and flavour.Where fat is found between the muscle fibres, the meat is said to be marbled.This type of meat will be more tender and moist and flavourful.These three qualities are also enhanced in all meats by a process of hanging, which matures the meat before the carcass is dissected.When purchasing meat for a given number of portions it is normal to allow 130g - 150g off the bone or 200g - 250g on the bone per portion for a main course, although this may vary for larger menus.
9Meat covers the following: Beef.Veal.Lamb.Mutton.Pork.Bacon.
10Quality points of Beef.The following list indicates the quality points to look for when purchasing beef.Moist, firm with bright red flesh.There should be no excessive fat.The lean meat should be flecked with fat which is known as marbling.The fat should be dry, creamy white in colour and odourless.The bones should not be brittle and when cut should have a bloody interior.
11The quality of meat & poultry is influenced by factors such as the breed of animal, the way it has been reared, its sex, age at the time of slaughtering, the conditions at the abattoir and the way it is then processed as either fresh or frozen meat.Quality descriptions such as Prime, Choice and Standard are used to grade various meats but in general quality can be judged by the compact shape and the amount of lean meat of a particular cut.
12Classification of Meat & Poultry. Red Meats (Lamb, Mutton, & Beef)LambAged under 1 year when slaughtered.Flesh light red in colour and finely grained.White or creamy white fat, bones are soft and porous.Carcass should be evenly fleshed with even coating of fat.Hung for days after slaughtering
13Mutton Aged 1 to 3 years when slaughtered. Flesh darker red then lamb. Fat is white and brittle, bones harder then lamb.Hung for days after slaughtering.
14Beef Aged over 1 year but under 3 years when slaughtered. Flesh firm cherry red and finely grainedFat firm, smooth and creamy white, Deep yellow is sign of age.Bones of a young animal pink and slightly porous.Hung for days after slaughtering.
15White Meats (Veal, Pork, Bacon & Ham) Under 1 year when slaughtered ( under 10 months best quality).Flesh very pale pink, finely grained and smooth.Outer layer of fat thin.Bones large in proportion to the size and should be soft.Hung for days after slaughtering.
16Pork Bacon Ham Flesh light pink in colour and finely grained. Skin should be thin, smooth and dry.Fat not excessive in proportion to the flesh.Use within days of slaughtering.BaconBest purchased by the side.Clean sweet smell and no signs of clamminessHamCured and Smoked or Cured and Unsmoked ( Green)Dry to the touch with clean sweet smell.Any curing mould should be dry.
17Offal Livers Kidneys Hearts A good clean colour with no discoloured patches on the surface.KidneysNo smell of ammonia present.Should have a good clean colour, be firm to the touch, with no stickiness.HeartsBright in colour, not too much fat and be just moist to the touch.
18Offal Sweet breads Tongues Tails Little fat showing, any signs of blood should be bright red.Resilient to touch and just moist.TonguesFirm to the touch, no sign of stickinessTailsMeaty parts bright red with no over abundance of fat and not too yellow.
19Offal Tripe Normally bought dressed ( cleaned and blanched) Light creamy colour, no greenish or dark discoloration and should be moist with no signs of stickiness or bad smell.
20Poultry. Chicken Turkey Plump firm breast, pliable breastbone. Legs covered with small scales and small spurs.TurkeyLarge plump well formed breast, small legs in proportion.Hen bird more tender than the cock.Weight range kg
21Poultry. Duck & Goose Guinea Fowl Well formed breast no excessive fat. Breast bone pliable at the end.Clean colour feet, web easy to tear.Ducklings kg Ducks kg Goose kgGuinea FowlPlumb breast, slightly dark flesh colour.Best December to June
22StorageBeef is purchased in hind or fore quarters and must be hung in a chilled temperature for up to 14 days.During this period the meat becomes tender and the flavour develops as a result of an enzymic reaction and the natural relaxation after rigor mortis.The period of hanging is longer than with other types of meat because the animal is older when slaughtered.
23Joints should be stored in deep trays under refrigeration and the surplus blood drained from the trays regularly.Frozen joints of beef must be kept at a temperature of –18°C and correctly defrosted before use.Nowadays it is common to purchase chilled vacuum packed joints and cuts of beef. When required the clear wrapping is removed and the meat allowed to stand in a refrigerator until the colour becomes normal.Once opened this type of meat must be used quickly. Vacuum packed meat should be stored at 0°C.
24Joints from a Hindquarter of Beef. 1. Shin.2. Topside.3. Silverside.4. Thick Flank.5. Rump.6. Sirloin.7. Wing Rib.8. Thin flank.9. Fillet.Total weight 180 lbs. The hindquarter produces prime cuts of beef.
26Joints from a Forequarter of Beef. 10. Fore Rib.11. Middle Rib.12. Chuck Rib.13. Sticking Piece.14. Plate.15. Brisket.16. Leg of Mutton Cut.17. Shank.Total weight 170 lbs.
27Methods of Cooking. 10. Fore Rib. Roasting. 11. Middle Rib. Braising, Stewing.12. Chuck Rib. Stewing.13. Sticking Piece. Stewing, Mincing.14. Plate. Stewing, Mincing.15. Brisket. Fresh Boiling.16. Leg of Mutton Cut. Stewing, Mincing.17. Shank. Clarification of Consommé.
28Small Cuts of Beef Suitable for Grilling & Frying. All small cuts of beef which are suited for grilling or shallow frying are referred to as steaks. All steaks come from one of the following three joints.Fillet.Sirloin.Rump.
29A Typical Fillet. Likely to Weigh 3 Kg. Chateaubriand (double fillet steak).Cut from the head of the fillet, and for more than two portions between 300 gms – 1 kg (12 ozs – 1 lb) can be obtained.Fillet steak.4 – 5 steaks can be obtained each of 100 – 150 gms (4 – 6 ozs).Tournedos steaks.Approximately 6 – 8 at 100 gms (4 ozs). Each steak should be tied to form a regular shape.Tail of fillet.This is cut into julienne or minced according to its intended use.
30Sirloin. Minute steaks. Sirloin steaks. Porterhouse and T-bone Steaks. Cut each steak approximately 1 cm thick and flatten with a cutlet bat making it as thin as possible. If necessary trim to a regular shape.Sirloin steaks.Cut into 1 – 2 cm slices and trim to about (entrecotes) 150 gms (6 ozs).Porterhouse and T-bone Steaks.Porterhouse steaks are cut including the bone from the rib end of the sirloin.T-bone steaks are cut from the rump end of the sirloin including bone and fillet.
31Rump.The middle portion from each slice is considered to produce the best steak and are known as point steaks.Some menus feature a 'plank steak'. This is a complete slice for more than two customers and is divided into portions after cooking.
33Quality Points of Lamb. Bones porous, with slight bluish tinge. Fat evenly distributed, hard brittle, flaky and clear white in colour.Lean flesh firm dull red, with fine texture or grain.Before preparation, carcasses should be hung in a cool, dry area (cold room) for up to five or six days. This will improve taste, texture and tenderise the meat.
34Storage. Carcasses of lamb should be hung by the leg. Joints should be stored in well drained trays, which should be changed daily, under refrigeration 3°C to 5°C for a maximum of 5 days. Smaller joints and cuts deteriorate quicker than a whole lamb carcass.Frozen joints should be stored in a deep freeze at -18°C with an appropriate wrapping and defrosted in a refrigerator at 3°C to 5°C for 24 hours.
37When a carcass of lamb has been dissected into its basic joints it will require some preparation before it can be cooked. If it is to be used for smaller cuts then the basic preparation would be taken further.
39Cuts From the Loin and Saddle. Single loin chops:cut across the un-boned loin; each chop g.(4-6 oz) in weight.Noisettes (French style):cut from a boned loin at an angle of 45º; cuts are 2 cm.(1 in) thick; flattened out and trimmed of excess fat.
40Rosettes: Barnsley chops: Cutlets (cotelette): cut from a boned saddle (i.e. across two loins); 2 cm.(1 in) thick; ends rolled in and secured with string to achieve a flat heart shape.Barnsley chops:cut from the un-boned saddle; 2 cm (1 in) thick.Cutlets (cotelette):Prepare as for roasting, excluding the scoring.
41Cotellettes double: Saddle: divide evenly between the bones; or the cutlets can be cut from the best-end and prepared separately. A double cutlet consists of two bones; therefore a six.bone best-end yields six single or three double cut-lets.Saddle:A full saddle includes the chumps and the tail. For large banquets it is sometimes found better to remove the chumps and use short saddles.
42Leg of Lamb.This is generally boned or partly boned for roasting. Leg of mutton is usually boiled.Preparing a leg of lamb.Cut along a line following the line of the aitchbone and through the ball and socket. Remove the aitchbone.Saw off the bottom knuckle and bone.Remove any excess fat, and tie with string before cooking.
43Cuts from a Leg of Lamb. Chump chops: Gigot chops: Cut from the chump end of the leg.Gigot chops:Cut from the centre of the leg.
45Quality PointsThe following list indicates the quality points to look for when purchasing pork.Moist, firm and pale pink flesh.There should be no excessive fat.The fat should be white and firm.The skin should be smooth, hairless and undamaged.The carcass should have a pleasant smell.
46Pork should be cooked for 25 mins per 450 gms weight and 25 mins over. Pork keeps less well than other meats, and needs very careful handling, preparation and cooking.It may contain parasitic worms, which are destroyed by thorough cooking. Always serve pork well done, never under-cook pork.Pork should be cooked for 25 mins per 450 gms weight and 25 mins over.e.g.to calculate the cooking time of a 3 kg joint:7 x = 200 mins.Therefore it will take 3 hours and 10 mins to cook the joint.
47Pork joints should be well fleshed without excessive fat. The flesh should be pale pink, firm, finely textured and not too moist. Look for smooth skin an pliable bones.There should not be any unpleasant smell or odours.The handling of pork should be efficient and hygienic.
48Storage. Pork is not hung before preparation. Sides of pork should be hung by the leg.Joints should be stored in deep trays, which should be changed daily, under refrigeration 3°C to 5°C for a maximum of 3 to 4 days.The smaller the joint the more rapidly it deteriorates.Frozen joints should be stored in a deep freeze at -18°C with an appropriate wrapping and defrosted in a refrigerator at 3°C to 5°C for 24 hours.
49Types of Pigs.There are many breeds of pig reared for food, but they fall into two distinct types.Baconers and Porkers.Baconers are bred to be lean fleshed during early stages.Porkers tend to be fat forming and need longer to mature and form lean flesh.The period from 16 to 30 weeks from birth to slaughter varies depending on the market for which the animal is produced.
50Joints And Usage From A Side Of Pork Total weight of a side of pork = approx 25 kg (50 lb)That’s approx ¼ of a side of beef
51Weight CUT Method of Cooking 1 Head 2 kg (4 lb) Boiling Spare rib CUTWeightMethod of Cooking1Head2 kg (4 lb)BoilingSpare rib2 kg (5 lb)Roasting, Grilling3Shoulder4 kg (8 lb)Roasting4Loin6 kg (12 lb)Roasting, Grilling, Shallow FryingBoiling, Pate & Sausages5Belly3 kg (6 lb)6Leg7 kg (15 lb)Roasting, Boiling7Trotters1 kg (2 lb)Fillet Internal Cut1.5 kg (3 lb)Sauté2
52 CUT WEIGHT Method of Cooking CUTWEIGHTMethod of Cooking1Head2 kg (4 lb)BoilingSpare rib2 kg (5 lb)Roasting, Grilling3Shoulder4 kg (8 lb)Roasting4Loin6 kg (12 lb)Roasting, Grilling, Shallow FryingBoiling, Pate & Sausages5Belly3 kg (6 lb)6Leg7 kg (15 lb)Roasting, Boiling7Trotters1 kg (2 lb)Fillet Internal Cut1.5 kg (3 lb)Sauté
53Joint Method of Cooking Preparation Required JointMethod of CookingPreparation Required1HeadBoilingRemove eyes, brain and jawbone2Spare ribRoastingGrillingRemove bladeRemove blade, chine and slice3ShoulderScore the rind, bone, roll and tie4LoinShallow FryingScore, bone, roll (stuff), tieRemove rind and excess fat, cut into chops between rib bones, chineMay be panéed5BellyPâté SausagesRemove rind, bone, cube or mince6LegScore, remove aitch bone and tie.Skin and trim, remove aitch bone and tie (may be pickled)7TrottersAdded to braises to enrich the sauceScrub, blanch, split8Internal filletSautéSkin and slice
54Bacon.Bacon differs from pork in that it comes from a different, usually larger breed of pig called a baconer pig, and the meat is cured (salted in brine) and sometimes smoked.Green bacon is a name often used to describe unsmoked bacon.Ham comes from the hind leg of a baconer pig, cut round on the bone.
55Gammon comes from the hind leg of baconer pig, cut square on the bone. Bacon should have no sign of stickiness and no unpleasant smell.The rid should be thick, smooth and free from wrinkles.Check that the fat is white, smooth and not excessive in proportion to the lean meat (flesh) which should be deep pink in colour and firm.
56Joints of Bacon. Back bacon is cut from the loin of the pig. Streaky bacon is cut from the belly, and gammon steaks cut from the hind leg.The hock and collar are cut from the shoulder and neck (these are tough but full flavoured cuts) usually boiled.The right temperature for storing bacon is 1-4 ºC ( ºF), in a well ventilated carton wrapped in muslin to protect it from flies.
57If small cuts of bacon are kept in the lower half of refrigerator. They should be well wrapped in greaseproof paper and on the lowest shelf, as far from the freezing box as possible, otherwise the moisture content of the bacon will be extracted, leaving only the salt.Much of the bacon used today is purchased pre-butchered.
58Cooking Ham’s & Gammon’s Hams and gammons must be soaked before cooking to remove excess salt.Hams should be soaked for at least 24 hours: gammons overnight.Weigh the soaked joint, scrub off any ‘bloom’ (green mould on meat face) which is the hallmark of a naturally cured ham in perfect condition.Place the ham in a pan of fresh, cold water, bring slowly to the boil, At the end of the cooking period turn off the heat and leave the ham or gammon in the stock for one hour, or until cool.
60Poultry is the collective term applied to domestic birds reared for human consumption and includes duck, goose, turkey and guinea fowl.Each may be battery reared or free range and is available oven ready.When using oven ready poultry always ensure that the packaged giblets are removed before cooking. Turkeys and chickens are purchased by both weight and number, for example, 5 oven ready 2 kg roasting chickens.
62Quality points of Chicken The following list indicates the quality points to look for when purchasing poultry.Plump breastsWhite unbroken skinPliable breast bonePleasant smellDry to the touch
63HygieneWhen dealing with any aspect of preparing raw poultry all the rules of hygiene, and health and safety apply. Handlers must:have an excellent standard of personal hygieneavoid all risks of cross contaminationhandle the poultry as little as possiblemake full use of refrigeration
64Ensure All Equipment Is Clean and Well Maintained. Carry Out the Processes in Cool Conditions.Seek Immediate First Aid for Any Cut or Other Injury.Never Process Partly Defrosted Poultry.
65Danger From Salmonella Infection. Most poultry harbour the risk of salmonella bacteria contained in their gut.Anything coming into contact with poultry intestines can easily become a carrier of this bacteria, therefore, every effort must be taken to minimise the spread by any form of cross contamination.
66When poultry is drawn there is a danger of salmonella bacteria contained in the gut infecting the carcass and the flesh.Great care is needed to minimise this threat and it is recommended that evisceration is carried out by the supplier.Undrawn birds should be hung by the legs until required and stored for a maximum of three days in a cold room with a maximum temperature of 3°C.
67Skinning.The skinning process can be carried out by cutting the skin along the backbone and then carefully pulling it away from the flesh using fingers and a small knife.The skin over the ridge of the breast is difficult to remove without damage as there is no flesh under it. When the winglet and feet are reached cut through the ligaments to detach them from the carcass.
68Preparing Chicken for Sauté Various jointing and boning processes are necessary depending on how the poultry is to be used, for example, sauté, grilling, suprêmes, ballotines or galatines.
69Cutting Chicken for Sauté. Hyperlink to NLN learning module Cutting Chicken for Saute
70Trussing Or Tying.Trussing or tying means that the joint or bird is tied to a suitable shape with string.The term trussing is applied to poultry only. A non slipping knot is used to secure all strings.
71There are two methods used for trussing poultry, one is used for entrée and the other for roasting. Both methods use two strings.When trussing for entrée the legs are folded and inserted beneath the breast skin. The feet have all but the centre toe removed and the remaining toenail trimmed off.
72 Trussing for Entrée.When trussing for entrée the legs are folded and inserted beneath the breast skin.The feet have all but the centre toe removed and the remaining toenail trimmed off.
73Trussing for Roasting.When trussing for roasting, the feet are treated as above but left standing and not inserted under the skin of the breast.Hyperlink to NLN learning module Tying and trussing poultry and feathered game.
74The Preparation Of A Turkey. Turkeys are cleaned and trussed in the same way as chickens, but it is good practice to remove the wishbone before trussing to make carving the breast easier which allows a greater number of regular portions to be produced.It is also necessary to strip the sinews from the legs using pliers and a sinew hook, again to make carving easier and more cost effective.
75If the legs are removed they should be boned out and batted to form a flat shape and any remaining sinews removed. A pre-prepared and cooled stuffing may then be added and the legs rolled and tied to form a sausage shape.They can then be seasoned, coated with melted butter and wrapped in cooking foil. Any excess stuffing can also be made into sausage shapes and cooked together with the rolled legs.
76Further study. Meat and Livestock Commission www.britishmeat.org.uk Practical Professional CookeryCracknell & KaufmannAdvanced Practical CookeryCesarani, Kinton & FoskettGuide to Modern CookeryA. EscoffierMeat and Livestock Commission