2Objectives To identify types and cuts of meat To relate cuts of meat and amount of connective tissue to optimum cooking and tenderness
3Notes Toughness of meat: contributed to collagen activity of muscles Terms:Steak – thinner than 1 inchRoast – thicker than 1 inch
4Beef chuck Short loin Arm bone steak & roast Rib Sirloin T-bone, porter house, fillet mignonRibSirloinrib steak & roastSirloin steak & roastRoundRound bone, round steak&roastAreas circle in red indicate that those cut can use dry heat methods of cooking, all the others can use moist methods.BrisketFlankCorned beefsteakFore shankShort plateShank, stew meatShort ribs
5Blade bone, steak &roast PorkJowlJowl baconLoinBoston shoulderChops/roastBlade bone, steak &roastHamLeg roast, ham roastRib chopcenter chopEnd chopAreas circle in red indicate that those cut can use dry heat methods of cooking, all the others can use moist methods.SideSpare ribs, baconHocksPicnic shoulderArm steak/roastRound bone, pork hock
6NotesCuts of meat can be identified by the size and shape of the bones and muscles.The size, shape, and distribution of the muscle can be another means of identification.For example, the bones in round steaks and arm steaks are quite similar. The muscles in the round steak are larger and less divided by connective tissue than arm steaks. Thus the steaks can be differentiated by the appearance of the muscles rather than by differences in the bone.One must be familiar with the bone groups to identify groups of retail cuts. Bones used to help identify the seven groups of retail cuts of meat.When bones are too similar in appearance to distinguish between them, the size, shape, and distribution of the muscle can be another means of identificationFor example, the bones in round steaks and arm steaks are quite similar, The muscles in the round steak are larger and less divided by connective tissue than arm steaks. Thus the steaks can be differentiated by the appearance of the muscles rather than by differences in the bone.Carcasses of meat are initially cut into primal or wholesale cuts of meat. The primal cuts of meat are often subdivided into subprimal cuts, such as a whole tenderloin or top round.
7Notes Cuts of beef are sometimes classified by most tender, medium tender and least tender cuts.Most Tender Cuts Medium Tender Cuts Least Tender CutsRib Chuck FlankShort loin Rump BrisketSirloin Round Shanks
8Beef and Pork Identification Slide Set Courtesy of:National Live Stock and Meat Board
9Cuts of Meat to Study Porterhouse (beef) T-bone (beef) #7 Blade Steak (beef)Filet Mignon (beef)Blade Roast (beef)Brisket Boneless (beef)Rib Eye Roast (beef)Standing Rib Roast (beef)Flat Bone Sirloin SteakFlank steakArm steakPork leg (shank)Back Ribs (pork)Rib Chops (pork)Center Rib Roast (pork)Slab Bacon (pork)Canadian Bacon (pork)Spareribs
10Primal Cut = Beef Chuck Retail Cut = Arm Steak The Chuck Arm Steak is similar to the Chuck Arm Roast, thickness is the only difference. Note the round bone surrounded by many small muscles. This steak will usually not have any rib bones showing.
11Primal Cut = Beef Chuck Retail Cut – Blade Roast This large roast contains many small muscles and is easily identified by the blade bone located in the upper center of this cut. Note also that rib bones and a portion of the backbone are located along the lower left portion of the cut. However, these bones may be removed from this large roast before it is packaged and put in the meat counter at the local supermarket.
14Primal Cut = Beef Chuck Retail Cut = Blade #7 Bone Steak The Beef Chuck Blade Steak is similar to the beef chuck blade roast. It is usually cut less than one inch thick. The blade bone shown in this slide has the typical shape of the "seven bone", a term frequently used in the meat trade.
15Primal Cut = Beef Brisket Retail Cut = Brisket Boneless The Beef Brisket is a very course textured muscle. The heavy layer of fat and the sternum or breast bone have been removed. Due to the course texture of this muscle, cooking in liquid is recommended.
16Primal Cut = Beef Flank Retail Cut = Flank Steak The Beef Flank Steak is the only steak in the carcass containing an entire large muscle. Also, although most other steaks are cut across the muscle fibers, the flank steak fibers run the full length of the steak. To help tenderize these long fibers, you will notice the knife scores across the cut. Since the flank steak is one of the less tender steaks, it should be cooked with moist heat cookery
21Primal Cut = Beef Rib Retail Cut = Rib Eye Steak The Beef Rib Eye Steak come from the large end of the beef rib and is made by removing back and rib bones
22Primal Cut = Beef Short Loin Retail Cut = T-Bone Steak This steak has the characteristic "T" shaped vertebrae and the large eye muscle. The smaller muscle located below the T-bone is the tenderloin.
23Primal Cut = Beef Short Loin Retail Cut = Porterhouse Steak The Porterhouse Steak is similar to the beef loin T-bone steak. However the tenderloin muscle is much larger and an extra muscle is located in the center of the porterhouse steak on the upper side.
24Primal Cut = Beef Sirloin Retail Cut = Wedge Bone Sirloin Steak The sirloin steak nearest the wholesale beef round is called the Beef Loin Sirloin Steak, Wedge Bone. Only one bone is usually seen, a wedge-shaped bone at the bottom of the cut near the center.
25Primal Cut = Beef Sirloin Retail Cut = Flat Bone Sirloin Steak The Beef Loin Sirloin Steak, Flat Bone is the least valuable type of sirloin steak if both the flat hip and backbones are left in the steak.
26Primal Cut = Beef Sirloin Retail Cut = Pin Bone Sirloin Steak The Beef Loin Sirloin Steak, Pin Bone is the first cut from the sirloin area of the beef loin. This steak looks much like the beef loin T-bone and porterhouse steaks in that it contains the T-bone the large eye muscle and the tenderloin muscle. However, it also contains an oval-shaped bone which you can see in the upper left corner of the steak. This bone is called the pin bone and is the tip portion of the hip bone.
27Primal Cut = Beef Short Loin Retail Cut = Tender Loin Roast The most tender retail cut from the entire beef carcass is the Beef Loin Terderloin Steak. This steak has a fine texture, is circular in shape and is usually about three inches in diameter.
29Primal Cut = Beef Round Retail Cut = Round Steak This steak is identified by the round leg bone and three muscles. At the top of the screen is the top round, at the lower left is the bottom round, and lower right is the eye of the round.
30Primal Cut = Beef Round Retail Cut = Rump Roast This represents a cut only moderately tender, moist heat is often used. However with a cut from choice and prime cattle, it is often cooked with dry heat
31Primal Cut = Beef Round Retail Cut = Heel Round The Beef Heel of Round represents a cut from the beef round immediately above the hock. This roast is composed of many small muscle groups, has a lot of seam fat, and is one of the least tender cuts of beef.
32Primal Cut = Beef Round Retail Cut = Top Round Steak The Top Round Steak is the most tender of the various round steaks. This boneless steak consists of a large muscle called the top or inside round. Note the cover fat on the curved top surface, the cut surface on the left side, and connective tissue along the bottom
33Primal Cut = Pork Shoulder Retail Cut = Shoulder Roast Arm Picnic Common Names: None.Description: This roast contains the shank bone, the arm bone, and a portion of the blade bone. The arm bone will not be visible on the cut surface. This cut comes from the lower portion of the shoulder.
34Primal Cut = Pork Shoulder Retail Cut = Arm Roast Common Names: Arm Roast, Picnic RoastDescription: This cut comes from the Pork Shoulder. The round arm bone is located in the upper center.
35Primal Cut = Pork Shoulder Retail Cut = Arm Steak Common Names: Arm Chop, Picnic SteakDescription: This cut comes from the Pork Shoulder Arm Picnic Roast by slicing across the picnic. The round arm bone is located in the upper center.
36Primal Cut = Pork Shoulder Retail Cut = Blade Steak Common Names: Pork 7-Rib Cut, Pork SteakDescription: This cut is from the Pork Shoulder Blade Boston Roast. It contains the blade bone and several muscles.
40Primal Cut = Pork Loin Retail Cut = Center Loin Roast Common Names: Center Cut, Pork Roast, Loin Roast Center CutDescription: Most desirable loin from the pork carcass which contains the characteristic T-bone with eye muscle and tenderloin.
44Primal Cut = Pork Side Retail Cut = Spareribs Common Names:Description: Spareribs contain about 12 ribs and are intended to have a limited amount of meat. This cut is separated from the inside of the pork fresh belly. Pork spareribs are the highest-priced of the cuts.
45Primal Cut = Pork Leg (Fresh Ham) Retail Cut = Leg Whole Common Names: Fresh HamDescription: This is made up of the round hip bone, the aitch bone, and consists of fat covering about halfway up the leg. This has a large amount of muscling.
46Primal Cut = Pork Leg Retail Cut = Shank Portion Common Names: Shank Roast, Leg RoastDescription: This portion of the fresh ham is the lower leg (shank) portion of the pork ham wholesale cut.
47Primal Cut = Pork Shoulder Retail Cut = Picnic Whole Common Names: None.Description: This is fresh pork shoulder picnic that is cured and smoked. The retail cut is usually roasted or sliced and fried.
49Primal Cut = Smoked Pork Loin Retail Cut = Canadian Style Bacon Common Names: Canadian Bacon, Back BaconDescription: Cured and smoked eye muscle of the pork tenderloin. It contains no bone and has little fat.
50Primal Cut = Smoked Pork Loin Retail Cut = Rib Chop Common Names: Center Cut Chops, SmokedDescription: This is made by curing and smoking a fresh pork rib chop. The lean muscle will have a similar color to cured ham
51Primal Cut = Smoked Ham Whole Retail Cut = Whole Ham Common Names:Description: This comes from the fresh whole ham that has been cured and smoked. The aitch bone and hip bone are in this portion of the pork ham.
52Primal Cut = Smoked Pork Ham Retail Cut = Shank Portion Common Names: Ham Shank EndDescription: This cut is the lower leg (shank) portion of the cured and smoked pork ham wholesale cut.
53Primal Cut = Smoked Pork Ham Retail Cut = Center, Slice Ham
54Primal Cut = Smoked Pork Ham Retail Cut = Rump (Butt) Portion Common Names: Ham Sirloin End, Ham Butt End, Ham Butt PortionDescription: The small dark area near the top is the aitch bone. The aitch bone is the key to identifying this retail cut.
55Primal Cut = Pork Side Retail Cut = Slab Bacon Common Names:Description: The wholesale pork side is usually smoked and cured. It is usually sliced into strips referred to as bacon.