Structure of Meat Meat is composed of bundles of tiny fibres which contain water, proteins, minerals and extractives Walls - connective tissue Fibres are held together by collagen Fat cells are distributed through fibres (marbling) Poultry has the same structure as meat however there is less connective tissue in poultry making it more tender
Protein:- Meat contains between 20-30% protein whereas poultry contains between 20-25% protein Fat:- Meat contains between 10-30% fat depending on the type, poultry however is significantly lower ranging from 4-10% depending on the type. Most of chicken fat is surface fat Carbohydrate:- Neither meat or poultry contain carbohydrates this means they need to be served with a food rich in carbohydrates Can you think of an example of a food rich in carbohydrate?
Nutritive Value Meat Vs Poultry Vitamins:- Both contain B group vitamins such as niacin What is the function of niacin??? Minerals:- Meat contains more iron in comparison to chicken, both have trace amounts of Zinc, Phosphorous, and potassium What are the functions of these??? Water:- Both very similar 50-70%
Tough or Tender Whether meat is tough or tender depends on:- Age of the animal – Older = Tougher Activity of the animal and body part More active = Tougher Treatment before slaughter – rest + correct hanging time + injection of enzymes = Tender
Tenderising Meat Proteolytic (protein splitting) enzmyes can be injected into the animal before slaughter
Tenderising Meat Mechanical method may also be used such as:- Mincing Piercing Pounding
Tenderising Meat Meat tenderisers which Contain Proteolytic enzymes may be sprinkled onto the meat before cooking E.g. papain
Tenderising Meat Meat can be marinated i.e. put into a mixture of oil, wine, lemon juice, vinegar for a few hours before cooking to tenderise it Acid = Tender
Tenderising Meat Long, slow moist methods of cooking such as stewing or casseroling tenderise the meat
Effects of Heat on Meat Protein coagulates = meat shrinks = juice squeezed out Collagen Gelatine in moist heat meat fibres loosen = tender Fat melts = meat moistened + flavoured Flavour Improves due to fat melting + extracts which have been squeezed out in the juices
Effects of Heat on Meat Some B group vitamins + some minerals destroyed/lost into cooking liquid How could you solve this problem??? Bacteria are destroyed Overcooking = tough indigestible meat How do you know when meat is cooked???