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Us 15900 - Meat1 u/s 15900 Prepare and Present Meat in the hospitality industry. Level 1 Credit 4.

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Presentation on theme: "Us 15900 - Meat1 u/s 15900 Prepare and Present Meat in the hospitality industry. Level 1 Credit 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 us Meat1 u/s Prepare and Present Meat in the hospitality industry. Level 1 Credit 4

2 us Meat2 There are four basic meat types we are going to look at:  beef  lamb  pork  chicken

3 Quality Points  A good quality dish needs quality ingredients. So what should you be looking for to make sure meat is fresh and of a high quality. us Meat3

4 Knowing what you are looking for requires using your senses:  Eyes what does good quality meat look like?  Nose what should good quality meat smell like?  Hands what does it feel like? us Meat4

5 ALL meat should have a pleasant smell. They won’t smell the same e.g. Chicken will smell different from beef – but the smell should be agreeable and appropriate for the type of meat. us Meat5

6 6 Quality Purchasing Points of Beef The lean meat should be bright red, not dull. The meat should have small flecks of white fat, known as marbling. The fat should be firm, brittle in texture, creamy white and odourless.

7 us Meat7 The lean meat should be bright red, not dull.  Bright red meat means the blood is still within the tissue (muscle) and has not decomposed.  Dull meat indicates the blood has drawn (drained) out of the flesh and is getting older.

8 us Meat8 The meat should have small flecks of white fat (marbling).  Meat that is well marbled will have small pockets of fat throughout the tissue and will cook quickly and taste tender.  Meat with a few large pockets of fat will only be tender around the fat area as the fat in the marbled pocket breaks down, loosening the tissue around it.

9 us Meat9 Marbled Beef  The much-sought-after Kobe beef has a unique history originating in Japan during the 2nd century.  This distinctly marbled meat is so tender you can cut it with a butter knife. To experience this beef is like gracing your palette with a fine wine– full of complex flavours, subtle sweetness and a lingering finish.

10 us Meat10 The fat should be firm, brittle in texture, creamy white & odourless  Fat in fresh meat that has been recently slaughtered (killed) will be firm and brittle and creamy white and have no odour (smell).  As the meat ages the fat changes texture and becomes more pliable and acquires a distinctive odour and becomes a creamy yellow colour.

11 us Meat11 Quality Purchasing Points of Lamb and Mutton Carcass – compact body, even layer of flesh, pleasant smell. Flesh – dull red colour, fine texture & fine grain. Fat – evenly distributed, hard, white and flaky, not sticky. Bones – pink and porous in young animals, white & brittle in older animals.

12 us Meat12 Good quality lamb or mutton should be compact and evenly fleshed.  The meat should be tightly structured and even throughout the carcass.  Large pockets of fat or loose flesh indicate an old carcass and poor feeding.

13 us Meat13 The lean flesh should be a dull red colour.  Lamb / mutton does not contain as much iron-rich blood as beef so it is a dull red colour.  If the flesh is a red-grey colour or dull grey colour this indicates that it has lost blood and is getting older.

14 us Meat14 The lean flesh should have a fine texture or grain  Even, finely grained flesh indicates the carcass is of top quality & has been fed on prime fed.  Poorly conditioned lamb / mutton often has a coarse texture & uneven grain.

15 us Meat15 The fat should be evenly distributed (across the carcass & not pocketed in small areas.)  Good quality lamb / mutton should contain some fat as this adds flavour & aids in the cooking process.

16 us Meat16 The fat should be hard & brittle, flaky in structure & clear white in colour  Hard / brittle fat indicates the carcass has been recently slaughtered. As the meat ages the fat decomposes & becomes more pliable & it changes structure from flaky slithers to a congealed gel.  Young meat has fat which is clear white in colour & as it ages the fat becomes opaque & creamy white.

17 us Meat17 Young animals should have bones that are pink and porous  Good quality lamb carcasses will have bones that are pink & porous as the calcium structure has not yet solidified & become dense.

18 us Meat18 Mutton should have bones that are hard, dense, white and inclined to splinter  Good quality mutton bones should be hard & dense. The bones should be white & inclined to splinter when chopped.  When bones on mutton carcasses are not so dense/hard, or they do not splinter, this indicates poor nutrition of the animal & a carcass that is of poor quality.

19 us Meat19 Quality Purchasing Points of Pork Flesh – should be pale pink and fine in texture. Fat – should be white, firm and smooth. It should not be excessive. Bones – should be small, fine and pinkish in colour. Skin should be smooth.

20 us Meat20 The flesh should be pale pink and firm  Pork meat is pale pink in colour & becomes off-white as it ages.  It should be firm & not hold a dent when pressed.

21 us Meat21 The flesh should be a fine texture  Fine textured, firm flesh indicates the meat is lean & the pig has been well fed.  Poorly fed animals will have flesh that is rich in fat & loose in texture.

22 us Meat22 The fat should be white, firm and smooth  Good quality pork fat is white in colour & firm & smooth in texture.  As it ages it goes creamy yellow & loses it firmness.

23 us Meat23 The fat should not be excessive  With the trend for pork to be lean & trim, pork meat should possess only a small amount of fat.  Pockets of excessive fat indicate a poor quality animal & they should be removed.

24 us Meat24 Pork bones should be small, fine and pinkish  The major part of the carcass should be flesh & therefore the bones should small & fine.  They (the bones) are rich in nutrients & have a pinkish tinge to them.  Bones that are off-white or grey indicate the carcass has aged & lost many of the nutrients.

25 us Meat25 The skin (rind) should be smooth  Many pork recipes or pork cuts include the skin, called the rind & should be smooth & firm.  Skin that is ribbed or peeling indicates that the meat is old.

26 us Meat26 Quality Purchasing Points of Chicken Breast meat should be plump. Flesh should be firm and bounce back when pressed. The tip of the breastbone should be pliable in young birds. Skin should be intact and cover whole bird.

27 us Meat27 Quality chicken should have a white skin with a faint bluish tint  The flesh will be a pink colour on the breast & thigh areas & a darker red around the neck, wing & legs.  Chicken that is fed on corn or steroids may have flesh with a yellowy hue.  Skin that is yellow & flesh that is grey indicates the bird is old or of poor quality. Poultry in this condition is very vulnerable to micro-organisms that can cause food poisoning.

28 us Meat28 Poultry should be plucked and presented with the head, neck and feet removed. Giblets and innards should be removed.  Birds that are cooked with feathers, feet, necks or giblets attached should not be used in the hospitality industry as they impart a distinctive flavour into the chicken dish & will detract from the presentation.

29 us Meat29 The skin should be intact and cover the bird  The layer of fat just below the skin is important for adding flavour & keeping the bird moist during cooking, most establishments will only remove the skin when presenting health conscious meals/dishes involving breast meat only.  All birds should have a small pocket of fat around the tail. Birds with large pockets of fat are often old or in poor condition.

30 us Meat30 Quality poultry should smell fresh and not have an offensive odour  Aged or poorly stored birds will have a pungent odour because as the tissue in the meat decomposes the bacterium create a by-product which produces this smell.

31 us Meat31 Flesh on quality birds should be plump, especially around the breast. The flesh should be firm and bounce back when pressed.  Flesh that has lost its plumpness indicates the tissues inside are starting to decompose.  As the tissue breaks down the cell liquids come out & the water content of the meat deteriorates.

32 us Meat32 Quality birds will have a pliable breast bone.  With age, this bone can become brittle & more likely to break.

33 us Meat33 Quality Points for Meat 1.List two quality purchasing points for beef. 2.List two quality purchasing points for lamb and mutton. 3.List two quality purchasing points for pork. 4.List two quality purchasing points for chicken.

34 us Meat34 Quality Points for Meat 1.List two quality purchasing points for beef.  lean meat should be bright red, not dull  the meat should have small flecks of white fat; marbling  the fat should be firm, brittle in texture, creamy white & odourless 2.List two quality purchasing points for lamb and mutton.  good quality lamb & mutton should be compact & evenly fleshed  the lean meat should be a dull red colour  the lean flesh should have a fine texture or grain  the fat should be evenly distributed  the fat should be hard & brittle in texture, flaky in structure & clear white in colour  young animals should have bones that are pink & porous  mutton should have bones that are hard, dense, white & inclined to splinter

35 us Meat35 Quality Points for Meat 3.List two quality purchasing points for pork.  the flesh should be pale pink & firm  the flesh should be a fine texture  the fat should be white, firm & smooth  the fat should not be excessive  pork bones should be small, fine & pinkish  the skin should be smooth 4.List two quality purchasing points for chicken.  quality chicken should have a white skin with a faint bluish tint  poultry should be plucked & presented with the head, neck & feet removed  giblets & innards should be removed  the skin should be intact & cover the whole bird  quality poultry should smell fresh & not have an offensive odour  flesh on quality birds should be plump, especially around the breast; the flesh should be firm & bounce back when pressed  quality birds will have a pliable breast bone

36 us Meat36 CUTS OF MEAT  It is important to identify the different cuts according to their position on the carcass, as this determines the end use for eating.  Understanding meat structure helps the cook to choose the method of cookery best suited to the cut.  Those muscle groups that do more work tend to be tougher than those that do little work. The muscles that are not used for vigorous exercise are finer grained & more tender

37 us Meat37 CUTS OF MEAT  We are going to look at some of the cuts for meat of the meat types: 1.beef – the meat from farmed cattle 2.lamb – the meat from a young sheep under one year 3.pork – the meat from a pig 4.chicken – the meat from farm bred chickens  We will identify where it comes from on the carcass, look at the meat structure, the smaller cuts it can be broken down into & suitable methods of cookery for each.

38 us Meat38 BEEF  The cuts we will look at are: topside silverside rump sirloin (striploin) fillet

39 us Meat39 Beef Cuts and Tenderness

40 us Meat40 TOPSIDE  Comes from the hindquarter of the carcass. It is a dry muscle that contains very little internal fat.

41 us Meat41 Topside  Preparation techniques  Topside can be cut into: topside steaks topside schnitzel strips for stir fry makes ideal lean mince  Cookery methods  This (medium tender) cut is not suited to roasting or grilling as it has very little internal fat & it cooked by these methods it would be very dry.  It is best suited for stewing but can be used as a second-class roast.

42 us Meat42 SILVERSIDE  Comes from the hindquarter.  Is a medium tender, boneless, lean meat.

43 us Meat43 Silverside  Preparation techniques  Silverside can be cut into: silverside steaks diced for stewing left whole pickled or corned  Cookery methods  Is best suited to stewing, braising or boiling

44 us Meat44 Making Corn Beef  Kiwi Kitchen  episode 8, 1 Mar 2008 chapter 2 Ryan – ex SBHS

45 us Meat45 RUMP  Comes from the hindquarter.  It is a medium tender, boneless, lean cut with exterior fat cover on one side.

46 us Meat46 Rump  Preparation techniques  Rump can be cut into: rump steaks  Cookery methods  Whole rump is suitable for roasting.  Rump steaks are best suited to grilling or pan frying.

47 us Meat47 SIRLOIN  Comes from the hindquarter.  It is a tender cut & the lean meat may have some marbling.

48 us Meat48 Sirloin  Preparation techniques  Rump can be cut into: sirloin/porterhouse steaks minute steaks strips for stir frying  Cookery methods  Whole sirloin is suitable for roasting.  Steaks are best suited to grilling.  Strips are best suited for shallow frying.

49 us Meat49 FILLET  Comes from the hindquarter.  It is the most tender, juicy (contains marbling) cut of beef.  The whole fillet tapers from thick butt end to thin tail end.

50 us Meat50 Fillet  Preparation techniques  Fillet can be cut into: chateaubriand tournedos mignon fillet steaks strips for shallow frying  Cookery methods  Whole fillet is suitable for roasting.  Steaks are best suited to grilling.  Strips are best suited for shallow frying.

51 us Meat51 BEEF CUTS 1.Name a cut that comes from the whole topside. 2.For the cut named above, list a suitable method of cookery. 3.Name a method of cookery that would be suitable for a rump steak. 4.Name two beef cuts suitable for roasting.

52 us Meat52 Beef Cuts 1.Name a cut that comes from the whole topside. steaks schnitzel strips mince 2.For the cut named above, list a suitable method of cookery.  steaks – stewing, braising  schnitzel – shallow frying  strips – shallow frying  mince – shallow frying 3.Name a method of cookery that would be suitable for a rump steak. grilling shallow frying 4.Name two beef cuts suitable for roasting. whole rump, whole sirloin, whole fillet second class – whole topside (can tend to dry out), whole silverside (unpickled)

53 us Meat53 LAMB CUTS  The cuts we will look at are: shank shoulder leg loin best end (rack) edible offal

54 us Meat54 Lamb Cuts and Tenderness

55 us Meat55 SHANK  Comes from the leg of the carcass, or from the forequarter.  It is least tender, with a high proportion of connective tissue to lean meat.

56 us Meat56 Shank  Preparation techniques  Needs to be chopped from the leg.  Cookery methods  As this is least tender, it requires a slow moist method of cookery; therefore it is best suited to stewing or braising.

57 us Meat57 BEST END (Rack) (Best end is English terminology, in NZ the best end is referred to as the rack)  Comes from the full loin of the carcass.  It is most tender with six to eight rib cutlets together.  It has an exterior fat cover.  In most cases the rack still has the chine bone (back bone) attached.  When chine bone is removed it is said to be ‘chined’. The chine needs to be removed to facilitate carving.

58 us Meat58 Best End (Rack)  Preparation techniques  frenched rack – the fat can be removed & the rib bones trimmed down to the meaty eye of the loin.  cutlets – frenched rack cut into individual cutlets  Cookery methods  As this is most tender, the rack may be seared and then roasted whole, or cut into cutlets & grilled or shallow fried.

59 us Meat59 SHOULDER  Comes from the forequarter.  It is least tender with some bone & fat within the lean meat.

60 us Meat60 Shoulder  Preparation techniques  The shoulder can be: cut into pieces chopped into shoulder chops boned-out and rolled  Cookery methods  As this is least tender, the boned-out & rolled shoulder is suitable for second-class roasting & the chops & pieces for stewing.

61 us Meat61 LEG  Comes from the full leg of the carcass which consists of a range of cuts including: rump topside silverside thick flank shank  The full leg has three main bones with the lean meat, the aitch bone (hip bone), femur & shank bone.  Covering the exterior of the leg is a layer of external fat which can be easily trimmed.

62 us Meat62 Leg  Preparation techniques  The full leg can be completely boned-out by two methods: tunnel boning – which keeps the shape of the leg (this method of boning leaves a cavity, where the bones were, which can be filled with a stuffing) butterflied – all the bones are removed & the meat is opened out flat.  The leg can also be cut into two shorter leg cuts: short cut leg – which has the rump removed carvery leg – which is semi-boned & has the rump & thick flank removed.

63 us Meat63 Leg  We can also obtain from the leg: leg chops – by chopping through the leg with the bone in leg steaks – by cutting through the boned leg  The leg can also be broken into the sub-primal cuts mentioned above: rump – most tender topside – medium tender silverside – medium tender thick flank – medium tender shank – least tender  The other cuts can be broken down further into: rump chop – cut across rump with bone in rump steak – from boned-out rump thick flank steak topside steak schnitzel – from either thick flank or topside

64 us Meat64 Cookery Methods  The full leg contains many sub-primal cuts, each with it’s own degree of tenderness, there are many different methods of cookery depending on what we are cooking: roasting – best suited to:  whole rump, whole thick flank, whole silverside  full leg, short cut leg, carvery leg grilling – best suited to:  rump chop  rump steak, thick flank steak, topside steak shallow frying – best suited to:  lamb schnitzel  rump chop, rump steak  thick flank steak, topside steak stewing – best suited to:  leg chops  shank

65 us Meat65 LOIN (Mid-loin)  Comes from the full loin on the carcass.  The full loin comprises of the mid-loin (half of loin nearest to the rump) & the rib-loin (half of the loin nearest the shoulder)  The mid-loin is a moist tender cut consisting of part of the lean striploin & fillet with the backbone included.  Has an exterior fat covering which is easily removed.

66 us Meat66 Loin (Mid-loin)  Preparation techniques  The mid-loin can be: boned & then rolled & tied for roasting chopped into mid-loin chops boned & trimmed to just the lean meat from the striploin = eye of shortloin (mid-loin)  Cookery methods  As the mid-loin is most tender, the boned mid-loin is suitable for roasting & the chops & eye of shortloin for grilling & shallow frying.

67 us Meat67 EDIBLE OFFAL  Refers to the edible internal organs & other parts of the animal.  Offal meat is generally full of flavour & nutrients.  We are going to look at a range of lamb offal: kidney liver (lambs fry) sweetbreads

68 us Meat68 KIDNEY  Are a medium tender very lean meat.  Are generally purchased with the protective covering of fat already removed.

69 us Meat69 Kidney  Preparation technique  Kidneys are required to be skinned, as they have a thin membrane surrounding the meat. This prevents the kidneys becoming tough & chewy. They then need to be cut in half lengthways & the fatty white core removed.  Cookery methods  Kidneys may be very quickly pan-seared or grilled to a pink colouration; they are also suitable for stewing.

70 us Meat70 LIVER  Lamb liver is a tender, very lean meat with a covering of near invisible membrane.  It is mild in flavour & light in colour.

71 us Meat71 Liver  Preparation technique  The liver needs to be skinned to remove the membrane.  Cut into slices & remove any large tubes.  Cookery methods  Shallow fry (pan fry or sauté) to medium pink colour.

72 us Meat72 SWEETBREADS  Are from the thymus gland of the lamb.  Need to be obtained from young animals, as they are quite hard & inedible from the other animals.  They are a very tender & delicate meat, both in texture & flavour.

73 us Meat73 Sweetbreads

74 us Meat74 Sweetbreads  Preparation technique  Need to be soaked in cold water for a couple of hours, then blanched in simmering water (with a squeeze of lemon) until white in colour & refreshed (plunged into ice water to stop the cooking process).  Need to skinned to remove the membrane & also remove any tubes.  Cookery methods  The prepared sweetbreads may then be grilled, shallow fried or braised.  Other examples of lamb offal include: tongue brains heart

75 us Meat75 LAMB CUTS 1.Describe from where on the carcass of lamb you would find the shank. 2.Name two cuts obtained from the full loin of lamb. 3.Name two cuts from the forequarter of lamb. 4.Name three cuts obtained from the leg of lamb. 5.Name a method of cookery suitable for a rack (best end) of lamb. 6.Name two edible offal obtained from lamb.

76 us Meat76 Lamb Cuts 1.Describe from where on the carcass of lamb you would find the shank. From the leg or the shoulder 2.Name two cuts obtained from the full loin of lamb. rack / best end / loin mid-loin / mid-loin chops / rib loin chops / frenched cutlet striploin / noisette / rosette 3.Name two cuts from the forequarter of lamb. foreloin / rib eye / shank / shoulder / neck 4.Name three cuts obtained from the leg of lamb. rump / silverside / topside / thick flank / shank 5.Name a method of cookery suitable for a rack (best end) of lamb. roasted – whole grilled – cutlets shallow fried - cutlets 6.Name two edible offal obtained from lamb. kidney / liver / sweetbreads / tongue / brain / heart

77 us Meat77 PORK CUTS  The cuts we will look at are: spare rib chops loin leg

78 us Meat78 Pork Cuts

79 us Meat79 SPARE RIB  Comes from the middle of the carcass.  A medium tender cut with many rib bones in between the lean meat.

80 us Meat80 Spare Rib  Preparation techniques  The spare rib can be cut down through the meat between the ribs to give individual ribs.  Cookery methods  If left whole the spare ribs can be roasted, or if cut to individual ribs, suited to stewing.

81 us Meat81 CHOPS  Pork chops can be obtained from the following joints: loin foreloin}forequarter shoulder}

82 us Meat82 LOIN CHOPS  Are derived from the loin, which is from the middle of the carcass.  They are a most tender cut.  The loin has had the chine & feathering rib bones removed.

83 us Meat83 Loin Chops  Cookery methods  Loin chops are best suited to grilling & shallow frying

84 us Meat84 FORELOIN CHOPS  Are derived from the foreloin, which is the forequarter with the removal of the hand.  They are a least tender cut.  Foreloin chops can be further broken down, by cutting into dice.

85 us Meat85 Foreloin Chops  Cookery Methods  Foreloin chops & dice are best suited to braising or stewing.

86 us Meat86 SHOULDER CHOPS  Are prepared from the hand, they are also a least tender cut.

87 us Meat87 Shoulder Chops  Cookery methods  Shoulder chops are best suited for braising or stewing.

88 us Meat88 LOIN  The loin comes from the middle section of the carcass with the removal of the belly.  If has the rib bones attached on one side, and a layer of fat covering the lean meat on the other.  The loin is a most tender cut.

89 us Meat89 Loin  Preparation techniques  There are numerous breakdown from the loin: the loin can be fully boned out & the fat removed to get the eye of the loin (striploin) the eye of the loin can be cut into escalopes & steaks can be chopped to give loin chops can be boned-out fully (fat remaining) to obtain the boneless loin the boneless loin can be cut to give medallion steaks can be cut to obtain the rib-loin & shortloin rib-loin can be trimmed to provide the rack the rack can be cut through into cutlets shortloin can be cut to obtain butterfly steaks.

90 us Meat90 Butterfly Chops / Steaks  This is a thick chop taken from the loin eye which is cut almost in half so that it forms a butterfly pattern when opened on the hinge.

91 us Meat91 Loin  Cookery methods  In all cases, whole cuts can be roasted and chops and steaks can be grilled or shallow fried.

92 us Meat92 LEG  A full leg is cut from the chump (rump) to the hock joint of the carcass.

93 us Meat93 Leg  Preparation techniques  The full leg can be prepared & broken down to the following: the full leg can be boned-out & rolled frenched leg – the full leg can be partially boned out, retaining the shank bone, the skin & topside are removed & it is trimmed of excess fat short leg – the chump can be removed from the full leg leg set – each individual muscle (sub primal) can be removed  chump – left whole or cut to steaks  topside – cut into steaks or schnitzels  knuckle (round thick flank) – left whole or cut into leg steaks  silverside – cut into steaks or dice hock – cut from the full leg, trotter is removed.

94 us Meat94 Leg  Cookery methods  Roasting The full leg, short leg, frenched leg & all whole muscles are suitable.  Grilling Topside steaks or schnitzels & silverside steaks are all suited.  Stewing / Braising Chump & knuckle steaks, silverside dice & the hock are all best suited.

95 us Meat95 PORK CUTS 1.Name a cut of pork where chops can be obtained from. 2.Name a cut of pork suitable for roasting. 3.From what cut of pork can we obtain cutlets? 4.Name two whole cuts that can be obtained from the leg of pork.

96 us Meat96 Pork Cuts 1.Name a cut of pork where chops can be obtained from. loin / foreloin / shoulder / forequarter 2.Name a cut of pork suitable for roasting. loin / rib / scotch / shoulder / leg / ribs whole suckling pig 3.From what cut of pork can we obtain cutlets? loin 4.Name two whole cuts that can be obtained from the leg of pork. chump (rump) / topside / silverside knuckle (thick flank round) / hock

97 us Meat97 CHICKEN CUTS  The whole chicken may be bought to source the required cut, or you can purchase the cuts individually.  Then you have the whole chicken to work with, you can obtain two of each of the cuts listed: breast wing thigh drumstick

98 us Meat98 Whole Chicken & Location of Cuts Breast Wing Leg Thigh Drumstick

99 us Meat99 BREAST  The breast is the most tender & lean cut from the chicken.  It is a fleshy piece of meat that is pale in colour & very succulent.  It is positioned below the ribcage & has a covering of skin on the other side.  Breast meat is part of the ‘white’ meat from the chicken

100 us Meat100 Breast  Preparation techniques  can be fully boned (breast bone & rib cage removed) to obtain the boneless breast, with skin on & tenderloin (fillet) retained  as above, but with the skin removed to get the skinless, boneless breast  tenderloins  can be cut into strips for stir fry  Cookery methods  The breast is suitable for grilling & shallow frying.

101 us Meat101 WING  The wing is the small cut of meat attached by the wing bones to the carcass near the neck.  It has a high proportion of skin & bone to lean meat.  The meat from the wing is dark in colour.

102 us Meat102 Wing  Preparation techniques  The wing tip, which has little meat, can be removed from the wing leaving the remaining winglet.  Cookery methods  The whole wing is suitable for grilling, shallow frying & stewing.  The winglet is suitable for finger food, which may be grilled, & the wing tip for stocks & sauces.

103 us Meat103 THIGH  The thigh is the area at the top of the leg which contains the thighbone & a covering of skin on one side.  It is dark in colour, fleshy & flavoursome.

104 us Meat104 Thigh  Preparation techniques  the thigh can be boned-out, producing the boneless thigh  it can have the bone & skin removed to get the boneless skinless thigh  thigh meat can be cut into dice  Cookery methods  The whole thigh is suitable for roasting, grilling & stewing & the diced meat for shallow frying & stewing.

105 us Meat105 DRUMSTICK  The drumstick is the cut from the leg below the thigh.  It contains the leg bone & dark flavoursome meat.

106 us Meat106 Drumstick  Preparation techniques  the drumstick can have the skin removed  or, as above, & the meat cut from the bone into dice  Cookery methods  The drumstick is suitable for grilling & stewing, & the diced meat for stewing & shallow frying.

107 us Meat107 WHOLE CHICKEN  The whole chicken is ideal for roasting.  When preparing the whole bird, ensure that you remove any excess fat & also remove the wishbone to help facilitate carving.

108 us Meat108 CHICKEN CUTS 1.Name two cuts obtained from a leg of chicken. 2.Why do you remove the wishbone prior to roasting a whole chicken? 3.How many of each cut can be obtained from a whole chicken?

109 us Meat109 Chicken Cuts 1.Name two cuts obtained from a leg of chicken. thigh & drumstick 2.Why do you remove the wishbone prior to roasting a whole chicken? To facilitate ease of carving. 3.How many of each cut can be obtained from a whole chicken? Two of each cut:  breast, wing, thigh, drumstick

110 us Meat110 Preparation of Meat  In preparing meat we use four key techniques. 1.Cutting  Involves using a sharp knife to divide the meat into smaller portion i.e.. joints (muscles) of meat chops steaks dice mince  We also use cutting to tidy the meat & make it more presentable 2.Chopping  Used when the meat needs to be cut through the bone. It may also be used to separate sections of a carcass, or to make cuts of meat such as ribs. 3.Boning / Jointing  Used when the flesh is required to be removed from the bone.  Can be applied to remove a bone from within cuts of meat & poultry leaving a pocket (tunnel boning), or to take a bone off from the outside of the meat & leave a flap / nut of meat 4.Skinning  Involves removing the skin from the whole chicken, or from a cut of chicken.

111 us Meat111 Cookery Methods for Meat  Cooking affects all foods by altering their flavour, texture, smell & colour. The reasons we cook foods are: to make them more palatable to destroy harmful bacteria to make food more easily digested

112 us Meat112 There are two basic types of methods for cooking meat: 1.Dry Heat Methods roasting grilling – including fan grilling / pan grilling / BBQ shallow frying deep frying  Dry heat methods do not require liquid & gain their moisture from fats or oils. They tend to suit tender or medium tender meat cuts.

113 us Meat113 There are two basic types of methods for cooking meat: 2.Moist Heat Methods steaming poaching simmering braising stewing pot roasting  Moist heat methods are more suited to the least tender cuts of meat.

114 us Meat114 The Effects of Dry and Moist Methods of Cookery  Least tender cuts of meat contain a connective tissue called collagen.  Collagen can be broken down during slow moist methods of cooking. If we try to cook these least tender cuts using dry heat methods this causes the collagen to become very tough & chewy (like chewing gum).  Tender cuts of meat do not contain collagen & are best suited to fast dry methods of cookery. If we try to cook tender cuts of meat using slow moist methods we can toughen the tender cuts up & make them dry.  Not all moist methods of cookery are slow. Quick moist methods of cookery such as poaching & steaming can be suitable for tender items.

115 us Meat115 ROASTING  Cooking in an oven with the aid of fat & is applied to first-class meat & poultry & some vegetable.

116 us Meat116 Spit Roasting  The food is constantly revolving above, or next to, the heat source.  It is the original form of roasting, but because of its many disadvantages, oven roasting has developed in its place.

117 us Meat117 Oven Roasting  Uses the best cuts for roasting.  Joints should always be raised out of the fat (by means of bones or a trivet) to prevent the meat from frying and becoming hard.  Joints should always go into a hot oven (200°C) to seal the pores (searing). Exposure to a high temperature for the first minutes rapidly coagulates the surface albumin & prevents the escape of meat juices.  The heat is then reduces according to the size of the joint.  Frequent basting is essential.

118 us Meat118 GRILLING  Involves exposing the meat to under- heat, or over-heat, grill bars or plates.  It is a quick cookery method & is suitable for smaller tender cuts of meat.

119 us Meat119 Under heat – on grill bars or plates  This is cooking on greased grill bars, with the aid of fat over direct heat.  Only first class cuts of meat & poultry may be used.  The grill bars may be heated by charcoal/gas/electricity should be made hot & brushed with oil to prevent the food sticking. Most foods are started on a hot part of the grill & then moved to a cooler part to complete cooking. The thickness of the food & the heat of the grill determine the cooking time & can only be learnt by experience.  The bars should char the food on both sides to give the distinctive flavour (& pattern) of grilling.

120 us Meat120 Over heat – salamander or grill bars  This is cooking on grill bars or on trays under direct heat.  Steaks, chops etc may be cooked on the bars but other foods are usually cooked on trays.

121 us Meat121 SHALLOW FRYING  Meat is cooked in a small amount of fat/oil in an uncovered pan e.g.. pan frying stir-frying sautéing  This cookery method is suitable for thin cuts of tender meat.

122 us Meat122 STEWING  Meat is cut into small pieces / cubes & cooked at a low temperature so as to simmer in liquid in a covered pan.  It can be cooked on the stove top (stew) or in the oven (casserole).

123 us Meat123 Stewing  This method is suitable for the least tender cuts of meat.  Stewing is gentle simmering in the smallest quantity of water, stock or sauce. The food is nearly always cut up & both the liquid & the food are served together.  This method of cookery has economical & nutritional advantages as it will render tender & palatable the coarser, older & cheaper types of meat & poultry which would be unsuitable for grilling or roasting.  The success of cooking such food depends on not allowing the liquid to reach too high a temperature. In the slow process of cooking by gentle heat the connective tissue, collagen, is converted into gelatine so that the meat fibres fall apart easily & become digestible.

124 us Meat124 u/s Prepare and Present Meat in the hospitality industry. Level 1 Credit 3

125 us Meat Chops are taken from which joint of pork?

126 us Meat Why should the outside of a roast be seared in hot oil before placing in the oven?

127 us Meat Define the following chicken cuts:  thigh  drumstick

128 us Meat Why is meat basted during the roasting process?

129 us Meat Name a cut of pork that is suitable for stewing.

130 us Meat Detail briefly how you would prepare lambs kidneys prior to cooking.

131 us Meat How would you store fresh uncooked chicken?

132 us Meat What method of cookery would be best suited to a whole sirloin of beef?

133 us Meat Describe how you would prepare and present a meat dish that you prepared as part of this course.

134 us Meat134 COMMON ASSESSMENT TASK (CAT) 1.Chops are taken from which joint of pork? They are taken from the loin cut through the bone. 2.Why should the outside of a roast be seared in hot oil before placing in the oven? Searing off the outside of the roasting joint retains the juices & ensures the cooked roast is juicy 3.Define the following chicken cuts: Thigh  The thigh is the larger part of the whole chicken leg, which is attached to the carcass Drumstick  The drumstick is the end part of the chicken leg attached to the thigh. 4.Why is meat basted during the roasting process? To prevent the cut drying out during the roasting process.

135 us Meat135 COMMON ASSESSMENT TASK (CAT) 5.Name a cut of pork that is suitable for stewing. Individual spare ribs, fore-loin chops, shoulder chops, chump steaks, knuckle steaks, diced silverside, hock 6.Detail briefly how you would prepare lambs kidneys prior to cooking. Skin the kidneys, cut in half lengthwise & remove fatty white core. 7.How would you store fresh uncooked chicken? Wrapped, labelled & dated on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator which should be at 4°C or below 8.What method of cookery would be best suited to a whole sirloin of beef? Roasting 9.Describe how you would prepare & present a meat dish that you prepared as part of this course.


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