Presentation on theme: "Meat, Fish & Poultry: PROTEIN-BASED FOODS Foods I: Fundamentals."— Presentation transcript:
Meat, Fish & Poultry: PROTEIN-BASED FOODS Foods I: Fundamentals
Meats Meats beef, pork, lamb & veal COOKING: –Before cooking, red meats should have a bright red color. Grey or brownish color means the meat is bad. NUTRITION: –The number of servings in a pound of meat depend on the amount of fat, gristle and bone. –Red meats = lots of iron –White flecks of fat in the muscle tissue is called “MARBLING.” More marbling = better Ground ROUND has the lease amount of fat.
Quality Grading is optional Grading is done by the USDA Top 3 grades: Prime Highest, most expensive, well marbled, tender, flavorful Choice Most common in grocery, less marbling, but still tender and flavorful Select Least amount of marbling and least expensive, sometimes sold as a store brand
Tough or Tender Meat tenderness is influenced by –Amount of muscle (The more muscle the more toughness) –Amount of marbling (The more marbling the less toughness)
Less Tender Cuts Can be Tenderized Mechanically –Grinding –Pounding Chemically –Acids Tomatoes, sour cream, yogurt, vinegar, lemon juice –Meat Tenderizers Salt + papaya enzymes
Hamburger = Ground Beef Regular = 30% fat (the maximum allowed by law) Chuck = 15-20% Ground Round or Sirloin = Less than 15% Lean = less than 10 grams of total fat with less than 4.5 grams of saturated fat per serving
Steps to Success Defrost safely in the Refrigerator or Microwave Rinse with cold water Pat dry with a paper towel Trim off fat Marinate for less than 24 hours –(discard marinade) Cook according to tenderness. – Tender Cuts can be roasted or broiled –Other Cuts need moist heat.
Lengthy Cooking at High Temps Causes: Shrinkage Tough Dry
Which of the following meats is cooked most efficiently in the microwave? A. Pot Roast B. Battered Chicken C. Stuffed Pork Chops D. Sausage Links ANSWER: D – Sausage Links Question…
Poultry Poultry Chicken & turkey, goose & duck STORAGE: –Frozen chicken should be thawed in the refrigerator –Fresh, whole chicken can be stored in fridge for 2-3 days COOKING: –Poultry is usually TENDER, so use DRY cooking methods –Roasting poultry in a bag shortens cook time –Wash & stuff turkey loosely right before cooking –Stir-fry is a QUICK way to cook boneless chicken in under 10 min. –A whole turkey is done when it reaches the correct INTERNAL TEMPERATURE Take from thickest part of the thigh NUTRITION: –Boneless, skinless chicken breast is LOWEST in fat –Also, boneless breasts offer the most servings –Light meat = less calories than dark –REMOVE SKIN to reduce fat content
Question… Pork usually comes from YOUNG animals. Do you think this makes the meat tough or tender? ANSWER: TENDER
Fish STORAGE: –Fresh clams & oysters in fridge for 2-3 days –Fresh fish & shellfish in fridge for 1-2 days –Fresh fish will have bright bulging eyes & SHINY skin –Spoiled fish will have a strong fish odor PREPARATION: –Fish should be cooked for a short period of time –Fish is tender because it has little connective tissue NUTRITION: –Fish fillets have the lowest saturated fat of all other meats Fish fillet = one side of fish without the backbone –Deveined shrimp have intestines removed –Fresh finfish have gills that are red in color FINFISH live in fresh or saltwater –Ex. FLOUNDER
QUESTION… Which of the following is a crustacean? A.CLAM B.CRAB C.MOLLUSK D.OYSTER ANSWER: B. crab Crustaceans include shrimp, lobster and crab…
Meat, Fish & Poultry TIPS –After cutting raw meats, the cutting board and knife should be washed and sanitized. –To be sure meat is fully cooked, you should measure the internal temperature. –Meat can be stored in the refrigerator or freezer. FACTS –Older animals have TOUGHER meat and more FAT
Meats Moist Heat Simmer Braise Stewing FOR TOUGH CUTS OF MEAT Shoulder - braise Rump Roast - braise Round Chuck OLDER ANIMALS Dry Heat Fry Roast (Bake) Broil FOR TENDER CUTS OF MEAT Loin Rib – broil YOUNGER ANIMALS *Grinding meat tenderizes it by breaking down the elastin in the meat.
Benefits to the Body Excellent source of complete protein Major source of –Iron –Zinc –Phosphorus –Thiamin –Riboflavin –Niacin –Vitamin B6 –Vitamin B12
Avoid the Evil Hitchhikers Choose lean meats as much as possible to avoid the saturated fats. “Go Lean with your Protein”
Too Much of a Good Thing Can be Bad Most people need about 5.5 ounces of food from the protein group a day Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs and nuts 2-3 oz will fit in the palm of your hand