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Chapter 15, Section 3 Challenges to Slavery.

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1 Chapter 15, Section 3 Challenges to Slavery

2 A New Political Party In 1854 antislavery Whigs and Democrats joined forces with the Free-Soilers to form the Republican Party- determined to rally “for the establishment of liberty and the overthrow of the slave power.” Their main message was that the government should ban slavery from new territories In the South, the Republicans had almost no support; They had strength in the North Northern Democrats suffered a beating


4 The Election of 1856 Repub Candidate- John C. Fremont- “free soil, free speech, and Fremont!” Democ Candidate- James Buchanan- endorsed the idea of popular sovereignty The Know Nothing Candidate- Millard Fillmore Buchanan won the election The overall vote was divided among regional lines


6 The Dred Scott Decision
Dred Scott was a slave whose owner moved to Illinois, a free state, and later to the Wisconsin Territory which also banned slavery Later the family moved back to Missouri where the owner died. Dred Scott sued for his freedom stating that he once lived on free soil and should therefore be free The Supreme Court had the opportunity to resolve the slavery crisis for good


8 The Court’s Decision Chief Justice Roger B. Taney said that Dred Scott was still a slave, and therefore not a citizen, and did not have the right to sue He went on to say that enslaved people were property and the 5th amendment prohibits taking away anyone’s property with “due process of the law.” He also said that Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in any territory, which makes the Missouri Compromise void! He also said that popular sovereignty was unconstitutional!

9 Reaction to the Decision
The decision divided the country more! The Court had reaffirmed that nothing could legally prevent the spread of slavery. Restricting the spread of slavery had just been ruled unconstitutional The Repubs called this decision “a wicked and false judgment” and “the greatest crime” ever committed in the nation’s courts

10 Lincoln and Douglas Stephen A. Douglas for the Democrats
Abraham Lincoln for the Republicans Douglas was called “the Little Giant.” He believed the nation could solve the issue of slavery through popular sovereignty Lincoln believed slavery was morally wrong, but admitted there was not easy way to eliminate it where it already existed. He instead wanted to prevent it from spreading.

11 Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Slavery was the main topic Lincoln asked if Douglas believed people could legally exclude slavery before becoming a state. Douglas said people could exclude it by refusing to pass laws that protect slave owners Douglas satisfied anti-slavery followers but lost support in the South and his response became known as the Freeport Doctrine


13 Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Douglas claimed Lincoln wanted African Americans to be fully equal to whites He said that the Republican party thinks that slavery is wrong Douglas won the election, but Lincoln gained a national reputation

14 Raid on Harpers Ferry John Brown led the raid and took both whites and African Americans with him The target was an arsenal where the federal government kept their weapons He was hoping to arm the African Americans so they could rebel against slave owners John Brown was convicted of treason against Virginia and hanged Ralph Waldo Emerson called Brown a martyr When Southerners heard what Brown had tried to do, they were even more convinced of a Northern conspiracy against them.


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