2 A New Political PartyIn 1854 antislavery Whigs and Democrats joined forces with the Free-Soilers to form the Republican Party- determined to rally “for the establishment of liberty and the overthrow of the slave power.”Their main message was that the government should ban slavery from new territoriesIn the South, the Republicans had almost no support; They had strength in the NorthNorthern Democrats suffered a beating
4 The Election of 1856Repub Candidate- John C. Fremont- “free soil, free speech, and Fremont!”Democ Candidate- James Buchanan- endorsed the idea of popular sovereigntyThe Know Nothing Candidate- Millard FillmoreBuchanan won the electionThe overall vote was divided among regional lines
6 The Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott was a slave whose owner moved to Illinois, a free state, and later to the Wisconsin Territory which also banned slaveryLater the family moved back to Missouri where the owner died.Dred Scott sued for his freedom stating that he once lived on free soil and should therefore be freeThe Supreme Court had the opportunity to resolve the slavery crisis for good
8 The Court’s DecisionChief Justice Roger B. Taney said that Dred Scott was still a slave, and therefore not a citizen, and did not have the right to sueHe went on to say that enslaved people were property and the 5th amendment prohibits taking away anyone’s property with “due process of the law.”He also said that Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in any territory, which makes the Missouri Compromise void! He also said that popular sovereignty was unconstitutional!
9 Reaction to the Decision The decision divided the country more!The Court had reaffirmed that nothing could legally prevent the spread of slavery.Restricting the spread of slavery had just been ruled unconstitutionalThe Repubs called this decision “a wicked and false judgment” and “the greatest crime” ever committed in the nation’s courts
10 Lincoln and Douglas Stephen A. Douglas for the Democrats Abraham Lincoln for the RepublicansDouglas was called “the Little Giant.”He believed the nation could solve the issue of slavery through popular sovereigntyLincoln believed slavery was morally wrong, but admitted there was not easy way to eliminate it where it already existed. He instead wanted to prevent it from spreading.
11 Lincoln-Douglas Debates Slavery was the main topicLincoln asked if Douglas believed people could legally exclude slavery before becoming a state.Douglas said people could exclude it by refusing to pass laws that protect slave ownersDouglas satisfied anti-slavery followers but lost support in the South and his response became known as the Freeport Doctrine
13 Lincoln-Douglas Debates Douglas claimed Lincoln wanted African Americans to be fully equal to whitesHe said that the Republican party thinks that slavery is wrongDouglas won the election, but Lincoln gained a national reputation
14 Raid on Harpers FerryJohn Brown led the raid and took both whites and African Americans with himThe target was an arsenal where the federal government kept their weaponsHe was hoping to arm the African Americans so they could rebel against slave ownersJohn Brown was convicted of treason against Virginia and hangedRalph Waldo Emerson called Brown a martyrWhen Southerners heard what Brown had tried to do, they were even more convinced of a Northern conspiracy against them.