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The Republican Party -Birth of the Republican party 1854

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1 The Republican Party -Birth of the Republican party 1854
Slavery had come to dominate the differences in the parties -by 1850 the differences had peaked so that anti-slavery Whigs, Democrats, and Free-Soilers formed a new anti-slavery party -official party policy was to oppose the growth of slavery where it did not exist.

2 Republican Party United in opposing the Kansas-Nebraska Act and keeping slavery out of the territories. Other than that, it embraced a wide range of opinions. As the party grew, it took on Free-Soilers, antislavery Whigs and Democrats, nativists from the North, and radical abolitionists.

3 The Republican Party Primary competition was the Know-Nothing Party, which was well-organized at the state level. Both parties targeted the same group of voters. Republicans lacked national organization; they needed a development that would refocus people’s attention on slavery issue. P

4 Presidential Election of 1856
√ James Buchanan John C. Frémont Millard Fillmore Democrat Republican Whig & Know-Nothing Party \

5 Election of 1856 Buchanan out of the country during the dispute over the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which made him “Kansasless”. Buchanan was the only true national candidate. Buchanan won election with only 45% of popular vote. Fremont: 33%; Fillmore: 22%.

6 1856 Election Results Note: 2 year old Republicans received a large chunk of the votes even if they did lose.

7 Election of 1856 Demonstrated that Democrats could win the presidency with national candidate who could compete in the North without alienating the South. Know-Nothings were in national decline. Republicans were now major political force in the North.

8 Objective: To examine the importance of the Lincoln – Douglas debates and the Dred Scott decision.
Abraham Lincoln Stephen Douglas Dred Scott

9 Lincoln – Douglas Debates
In 1858, Abraham Lincoln challenged incumbent Stephen Douglas for his seat in US Senate.

Lincoln and Douglas both running for the U.S. Senate in Illinois in 1858. The debates were followed by the country because both candidates were interested in running for President in 1860: Slavery was the big issue

11 Lincoln stated: A House Divided against itself cannot stand
Lincoln stated: A House Divided against itself cannot stand. Either we become all one or all the other. The Constitution had ultimately put slavery on the path to extinction: He was against the EXPANSION of slavery Douglas believed that slavery should be decided by the people: He was for popular sovereignty

The Freeport Doctrine: “Honest Abe” tricked Douglas into admitting that Popular Sovereignty could work against expansion of slavery (what if S.C. says slavery can’t be touched?)… Southerners won’t support Douglas for presidency in 1860

13 Lincoln – Douglas Debates
Stephen Douglas: • Lincoln was wrong for wanting to end slavery. • If Lincoln tried to end slavery, the U.S. could face a civil war. • Douglas believed that each territory should be able to decide on its’ own whether or not to allow slavery by using popular sovereignty.

14 Lincoln – Douglas Debates
Abraham Lincoln: • Lincoln believed that slavery was evil and should be kept out of the territories. • Lincoln believed that African Americans were guaranteed “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”, as stated in the Declaration of Independence. Did NOT, however, call for the abolition of slavery… only that it not spread beyond it’s current borders.

15 Lincoln-Douglas Debates: Video (2:13)
Illinois in 1858, showing state senate districts (left) and house districts (right) Results: Lincoln-Douglas Debates: Video (2:13) • Douglas won the election by a slim margin. • However, Lincoln became well known throughout the nation.


17 Case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue
DRED SCOTT DECISION Slave from Missouri who moved with his owner to Illinois & Wisconsin, both free. They moved back to Missouri, which still recognized him as a slave, & his master died. He sued his master’s widow for his freedom, claiming he should be free since he had lived on free land for four years. Case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue Can a slave sue for his freedom? Is a slave property? Is slavery legal?

18 Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision
Slaves cannot sue the U.S. for their freedom because they are property. They are not citizens and have no legal right under the Constitution. Supreme Court legalized slavery by saying that : Congress could not stop a slave owner from moving his slaves to a new territory Missouri Compromise and all other compromises were unconstitutional North refused to enforce Fugitive Slave Law Free states pass personal liberty laws. Republicans claim the decision is not binding Southerners call on the North to accept the decision if the South is to remain in the Union.

Q: Was Scott a U.S. citizen with the right to sue? A: NO Q: Did living in a free territory make Scott a free man? A: NO Q: Did Congress have the right to outlaw slavery in any territory? A: NO

20 RESULTS: • Dred Scott was not given his freedom. • The Missouri Compromise was found to be unconstitutional. Open to slavery through popular sovereignty (Compromise of 1850) Open to slavery through popular sovereignty (KS-NE Act) Missouri Compromise line is declared unconstitutional (Dred Scott Decision)

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