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Chapter 1 Science for the New Millenium

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1 Chapter 1 Science for the New Millenium
What is biotechnology ? Chapter 1 Science for the New Millenium

2 What is biotechnology ? The study & manipulation of living things or their component molecules, cells, tissues or organs. Humans have been manipulating living things for centuries to provide plants and animals with desired characteristics – see figure 1.16 Examples: Increased milk production, lean meat product, increased egg production, increased yields per acre in wheat, rye, corn, rice, soybeans, increased disease resistance in crops.

3 More Biotech examples Seedless watermelons More apple varieties
Roses with new fragrances and colors Dog breed varieties Flavr Tomatoes – ripen longer on the vine Human insulin to treat diabetes Lovastin – grown w/bacteria to create medication to treat cholesterol “stonewashed” jeans with enzymes Cloning body parts for human transplants

4 Goals of biotech company
Make a product that is useful to society Generate profit for company to function and continue to conduct product research R& D = Research & Development

5 4 categories of biotech companies
Industrial & Environmental Agriculture Medical/Pharmaceutical Diagnostic Research

6 University & Government labs
Conduct “pure science” Strong working relationship with Biotech Companies Research is based on industry needs so usually industry provides funding Examples: HIV research, malaria, diabetes, viral therapies, crop research NIH & CDC: treatments for heart disease, cancer, Alzheimers

7 GMO – Genetically modified organism
Use restriction enzymes to cut DNA sequence of choice -----add specific enzymes to paste sequences together = RECOMBINANT DNA –rDNA Examples: proteins in pregnancy tests, enzymes that increase juice production in apples, strawberry plants that can grow in cold climate, insect resistant cotton, virus resistant papaya, vitamin A production in rice to combat blindness in 3rd

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