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Ch. 13.3: Genetically Engineered Organisms

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1 Ch. 13.3: Genetically Engineered Organisms
Objectives: Describe how biologists genetically modify plants and animals. Explain a technique used to clone animals. Summarize the GMO controversy Vocabulary G.M.O. Transgenic

2 Selective Breeding: Old School Genetic Engineering
indirect manipulation of DNA select parents with desirable traits create “better” individual oldest way to improve a species breed cats, dogs, horses, trees, mice

3 Selective Breeding: Methods
1. Inbreeding - to maintain traits in a population - mate parents with similar genomes - keeps desirable traits, but increases risks for undesirable mutations (illness/disease) 2. Outbreeding (Hybridization) - Crossing of distantly related organisms - offspring sterile but hardier (hybrid vigor) - ex. Mule, hybrid corn, ligers, etc.

4 Genetic Engineering Direct manipulation of DNA
- cutting and pasting of genes - design organisms or create transgenic organisms Creates a transgenic organism- organism with foreign DNA or rDNA Genetically Modified Organism = GMO Any organism that has acquired genes by artifical means.

5 Genetic Engineering: Basic Steps
Isolate desired DNA sequence Restriction enzymes cut and remove DNA sequences. Attach desired DNA to a VECTOR Ligase binds DNA fr. different sources. Vector = bacteria plasmid or virus that will carry recombinant DNA to host. 3. Cloning: Host organisms transcribes and translates desired DNA sequence. Makes MANY COPIES of enzyme or protein.

6 Creating Plant GMOs Applications Insert genes for:
natural insecticides Pesticides Growing larger fruits/bigger flowers Increase “nutrient” content. Common in soybeans, rice, corn, wheat

7 Creating Animial GMOs Applications Bigger cattle, leaner meat
More milk production Better wool production Have animals produce human proteins to treat disorders.

8 Animal Clones Steps Sheep, cattle, dogs, cats, pigs, etc.
Remove nucleus fr. Egg. Replace nucleus w/ nucleus (and chromosomes) fr. a somatic cell Shock w/ electricity to stimulate cell division Place embryo in surrogate female for gestation. Sheep, cattle, dogs, cats, pigs, etc. Problems: advanced aging and cancer in clones.

9 GMO Controversy Pros: New genes can improve crops or animals.
Cons: Could GMOs be harmful to us? New allergies? Cancer/illness? Not many studies. Not regulated. Economic concerns

10 Cloning & Stem Cell Controversy
Stem cells = undifferentiated cells that can turn into any type of cell (nervous, cardiac, skin, etc.) Could be used to treat a host of illness/disease Repair damaged spinal cord tissue Replace damaged cardiac muscle Sources: Embryos; Adult cells: bone marrow and cord blood (Embryos have the most promise/potential)

11 Allowed in U.S. (state by state) w/ restrictions
Therapeutic Cloning Use embryonic stem cells to create specialized human cells. Goal: Cure disease Embryo does not develop into a human. Allowed in U.S. (state by state) w/ restrictions

12 Reproductive Cloning Create a human clone. Strictly prohibited!

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