Presentation on theme: "Ch. 13.3: Genetically Engineered Organisms"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ch. 13.3: Genetically Engineered Organisms Objectives:Describe how biologists genetically modify plants and animals.Explain a technique used to clone animals.Summarize the GMO controversyVocabularyG.M.O.Transgenic
2 Selective Breeding: Old School Genetic Engineering indirect manipulation of DNAselect parents with desirable traitscreate “better” individualoldest way to improve a speciesbreed cats, dogs, horses, trees, mice
3 Selective Breeding: Methods 1. Inbreeding- to maintain traits in a population- mate parents with similar genomes- keeps desirable traits, but increases risks for undesirable mutations (illness/disease)2. Outbreeding (Hybridization)- Crossing of distantly related organisms- offspring sterile but hardier (hybrid vigor)- ex. Mule, hybrid corn, ligers, etc.
4 Genetic Engineering Direct manipulation of DNA - cutting and pasting of genes- design organisms or create transgenic organismsCreates a transgenic organism- organism with foreign DNA or rDNAGenetically Modified Organism = GMOAny organism that has acquired genes by artifical means.
5 Genetic Engineering: Basic Steps Isolate desired DNA sequenceRestriction enzymes cut and remove DNA sequences.Attach desired DNA to a VECTORLigase binds DNA fr. different sources.Vector = bacteria plasmid or virus that will carry recombinant DNA to host.3. Cloning: Host organisms transcribes and translates desired DNA sequence. Makes MANY COPIES of enzyme or protein.
7 Creating Animial GMOs Applications Bigger cattle, leaner meat More milk productionBetter wool productionHave animals produce human proteins to treat disorders.
8 Animal Clones Steps Sheep, cattle, dogs, cats, pigs, etc. Remove nucleus fr. Egg.Replace nucleus w/ nucleus (and chromosomes) fr. a somatic cellShock w/ electricity to stimulate cell divisionPlace embryo in surrogate female for gestation.Sheep, cattle, dogs, cats, pigs, etc.Problems: advanced aging and cancer in clones.
9 GMO Controversy Pros: New genes can improve crops or animals. Cons: Could GMOs be harmful to us?New allergies? Cancer/illness? Not many studies. Not regulated. Economic concerns
10 Cloning & Stem Cell Controversy Stem cells = undifferentiated cells that can turn into any type of cell (nervous, cardiac, skin, etc.)Could be used to treat a host of illness/diseaseRepair damaged spinal cord tissueReplace damaged cardiac muscleSources: Embryos; Adult cells: bone marrow and cord blood (Embryos have the most promise/potential)
11 Allowed in U.S. (state by state) w/ restrictions Therapeutic CloningUse embryonic stem cells to create specialized human cells.Goal: Cure diseaseEmbryo does not develop into a human.Allowed in U.S. (state by state) w/ restrictions
12 Reproductive CloningCreate a human clone.Strictly prohibited!