Biotechnology - use of living organisms to create products or help processes Ex. HGH, insulin Recombinant DNA - segment of DNA containing sequences from different organisms How is DNA manipulated?
A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T C G C G C G C G C G C G C G C G C G C G C G G C C G C G C G C G C G C G C G G G C C C C G G C G C G G C G C G C G G GG G G G C C C C C Restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sites and create sticky ends Complementary ends will fuse to produce a long strand of DNA
bacterium bacterial chromosome plasmid Plasmids are extra rings of DNA that replicate in bacteria. DNA can be inserted into plasmids.
1. Use restriction enzymes. 2. Insert gene into plasmid. 3. Transfer the plasmid back into bacterial cell. 4. Let bacterial cells replicate. bacterial clones replication transformation recombinant DNA Plasmid Bacterium Human cell DNA Human protein Bacterial chromosome
Restriction fragments of DNA are compared by size Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules by size Figure 12.10 Mixture of DNA molecules of different sizes Power source Gel Glass plates Longer molecules Shorter molecules Completed gel
Human Genome Project 3.2 billion bases in 22 autosomes + X, Y Draft sequence completed in 2003 Available at www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/ home.shtml www.ucsc.genome.edu
What does the human genome sequence tell us? 20 K to 25 K genes 99.9% alike, across all races 98.5% of DNA is not transcribed - Spacers between genes - Structural (centromeres, telomeres) - Regulatory (enhancers, promoters) -Leftovers of evolution? -STR short tandem repeats -Alu (280 bp repeated 1 million times)
What’s next? Gene therapy Personalized medical treatments Genetic discrimination Designer children