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Frontiers of Genetics.

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Presentation on theme: "Frontiers of Genetics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Frontiers of Genetics

2 Frontiers of Genetics Recombinant DNA Restriction enzymes
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) Bacteria Plants Animals Cloning……



5 Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA technology combines genes from different sources – even different species – into a single DNA molecule. In addition to the many applications in fields such as medicine and agriculture, analyzing and manipulating genomes can help ans’wer one of biology’s most important questions: How does a complex multicellular organisms develop from a single cell?”


7 Cutting and Pasting DNA
The tools used to cut DNA are called restriction enzymes. In nature these enzymes are found in bacteria and protect the bacteria from intruding DNA from other organisms and viruses (phages) In the lab, they are used to move DNA from one place to another.


9 Useful Products From Genetically Engineered Microorganisms
Oil spills Mass production of pesticides to theraputic drugs Insulin Vaccines Proteins of Hepatitis B virus cloned in yeast cells have allowed for mass productions

10 Genetically Modified Plants
Using recombinant DNA technology, scientists are able to improve various characteristics of certain crop plants. Improved nutritional value Resistance to spoilage or disease By 2000, half of crops of soybeans and corn grown in the US were genetically modified in some way. Herbicide resistance Pest resistance (insects, fungi)


12 Genetically Modified Animals
GM animals is more difficult to produce than GM plants Researchers try to make a sheep with better-quality wool, a pig with leaner (less fat) meat, or a fish that will mature in shorter time.

13 The GMO Controversy Could GM crops pass their new genes to closely related plants in nearby wild areas? Superweeds? Unknown risks to humans GM proteins in milk of animals, medicines….

14 Animal Cloning In cloning an entire animal, the nucleus from a single cell of that adult animal replaces the nucleus of an unfertilized egg cell from another animal of the same tissue. Cloning offers the potential to mass produce an animal of desirable set of traits




18 The End

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