5 Recombinant DNARecombinant DNA technology combines genes from different sources – even different species – into a single DNA molecule.In addition to the many applications in fields such as medicine and agriculture, analyzing and manipulating genomes can help ans’wer one of biology’s most important questions: How does a complex multicellular organisms develop from a single cell?”
7 Cutting and Pasting DNA The tools used to cut DNA are called restriction enzymes.In nature these enzymes are found in bacteria and protect the bacteria from intruding DNA from other organisms and viruses (phages)In the lab, they are used to move DNA from one place to another.
9 Useful Products From Genetically Engineered Microorganisms Oil spillsMass production of pesticides to theraputic drugsInsulinVaccinesProteins of Hepatitis B virus cloned in yeast cells have allowed for mass productions
10 Genetically Modified Plants Using recombinant DNA technology, scientists are able to improve various characteristics of certain crop plants.Improved nutritional valueResistance to spoilage or diseaseBy 2000, half of crops of soybeans and corn grown in the US were genetically modified in some way.Herbicide resistancePest resistance (insects, fungi)
12 Genetically Modified Animals GM animals is more difficult to produce than GM plantsResearchers try to make a sheep with better-quality wool, a pig with leaner (less fat) meat, or a fish that will mature in shorter time.
13 The GMO ControversyCould GM crops pass their new genes to closely related plants in nearby wild areas?Superweeds?Unknown risks to humansGM proteins in milk of animals, medicines….
14 Animal CloningIn cloning an entire animal, the nucleus from a single cell of that adult animal replaces the nucleus of an unfertilized egg cell from another animal of the same tissue.Cloning offers the potential to mass produce an animal of desirable set of traits