Presentation on theme: " Many ethnic groups live in South Africa: Whites Blacks Asians Mixed-Race groups Apartheid was a policy of the all- white South African government."— Presentation transcript:
Many ethnic groups live in South Africa: Whites Blacks Asians Mixed-Race groups Apartheid was a policy of the all- white South African government to separate, exploit, and dominate the various non-white ethnic groups. Apartheid = “apartness or separateness”
White life under Apartheid: Wealth and luxury Attempted to recreate European society Whites controlled most aspects of society—government, education, military, the press 17% of the population owned 87% of the land
Asians and mixed-race groups life under Apartheid: 13% of the population Treated better than blacks/worse than whites. Many held skilled jobs & graduated. Mixed race marriage or intimate relationships were illegal until 1980’s. In the 80’s they could vote for their own representatives, but could not live in white areas or use white facilities.
Black life under Apartheid: Most lived in poverty. They could not vote, received little education, held menial jobs in mining, agriculture, industry, or domestic service. Made up 70% of South Africa’s population. They were required to keep “pass books.” These were required ID and needed to be presented if a black African was outside of their reserve area. In 1958, blacks were assigned to reserves (homelands). The homelands made up 13% of the land, but 68% of the population had to live there. Men had to leave the reserves to work in mines or factories in white areas- they were forced to leave their families for as many as 11 months.
The end of Apartheid: Banning together of black groups- civil disobedience, strikes, boycotts, nonviolent demonstrations. International community pressure both economically and politically. Leaders such as Nelson Mandela 1994- Nelson Mandela is elected president and it marked the end of apartheid.
Genocide is "the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group.” Recent examples Hotel Rwanda (Rwanda 1994) Cambodia (1975-1979)-Pol Pot killed anyone thought to be influenced by Western thought. Holocaust (1939-1945)-Attempt by Hitler and the Nazis to exterminate all people of Jewish descent.
Many of the issues in Africa were caused by European colonialism and the Scramble for Africa. The Berlin Conference was took place from 1884 to 1885. Europeans felt a duty to bring Africans up to European standard of living. Otto Von Bismarck (Germany) called the conference to discuss African problems. The conference launched the colonial partition (division) of Africa and European Imperialism and caused the loss of African independence.
The Boer Wars (Afrikaans translates to "freedom wars") were two wars fought during 1880–1881 and 1899–1902 by the British Empire against the Dutch settlers (mainly Protestant farmers) of two independent Boer republics, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal Republic. War was due to British Empire taking over South Africa and the discovery of diamonds and gold in the late 1800’s. Many countries were interested in this region due to the gold and diamonds.
Treaty signed on 31 May 1902 to end the Second Anglo-Boer War between the South African Republic and the Republic of the Orange Free State on one side and Great Britain on the other. This settlement provided for the end of hostilities and eventual self-government to the Transvaal (South African Republic) and the Orange Free State as colonies of the British Empire. The Afrikaner republics agreed to come under the sovereignty of the British monarch and the British government agreed on various details including the following: To eventually give the Transvaal and the Orange Free State self-government (granted in 1906 and 1907, respectively). To allow the use of Dutch (later Afrikaans) in the schools and law courts. The Union of South Africa was created on 31 May 1910. It became a republic in 1961.
Textiles (cloth), rum, and manufactured goods went to Africa while Slaves and sugar were brought to the Americas.
Some countries in Africa have dual economies. Some goods are produced for export. Other goods are produced for use in the local economy.