2 South Africa Most developed and wealthiest nation in Africa
3 Quick Early HistoryEuropeans came in 1600’s (Dutch, Germans, French) and came to be known as Afrikaners or Boers . They claimed more & more African land by treaty and by force.In late 1800’s gold was discovered and more people, especially the British, arrived.Friction developed and the British asserted more control… Boer war --> British rule 1902.In 1961, South Africa achieved independence from Britain, but not from white domination.economy grew VERY fast: WHY?1. Coal Money to invest3. Connections with Europe4. African cheap labor
4 Beginnings of Apartheid In 1948, the white minority government instituted a policy of apartheid or complete separation of the races.It banned social contact between blacks and whites and established segregated schools, hospitals, and neighborhoods.Although the blacks made up 70% of the population, they received only a small amount of the land, keeping the best land for the whites.
5 Apartheid laws determined Where you could liveWhom you could marryWhom you could do business withRestricted land ownershipPolice powers including arresting people without a trialRestriction of movement – had to have passesRegulation of living conditions, separate entrances for non whitesRegulation of pay and types of jobs for blacksLack of recognition for black labor unionsDenied any representation of nonwhites in the national government
6 Many white and black South Africans fought apartheid through peaceful protest but the well armed South African army responded with deadly force.
7 Government Racial Categories “European” – British and Dutch descent“African” – various African ethnic groups“Asian” – mostly of Indian descent“Colored” – mixed race groups
8 EuropeansWhites dominated – government, industry, agriculture, education, the military and the press17% of the population yet owned 87% of landWhite Society = wealth and luxury, highest standard of living in Africa, attempted to recreate European society in their cities
9 Asians and Coloreds 13% population Skilled jobs, secondary education Marriage illegal until 1980s1980s right to vote
10 Africans 70% population Could not vote, little education, menial jobs Passbooks1958 forced to live on reserves (homelands)Reserves = 13% South Africa’s land. Poor land, limited farming, few facilities such as factories, modern roads, schools and hospitalsBlack Society = poverty, struggling each day to feed their families, denied education, housing, and high-paying jobs
11 Black Men = live apart from families for as much as 11 months of each year Black Women = domestic servants in houses owned by white peopleBlacks illegally squatted in shanty towns on the outskirts of white cities
12 ResistanceIn 1912, the blacks founded the African National Congress (ANC) to fight for their rights.Resistance Movement = civil disobedience, strikes, boycotts, and nonviolent demonstrations
13 ResistanceIn 1949, Nelson Mandela emerged as one of the leaders of the ANC and he led the struggle to end apartheid that resulted in his being imprisoned.
14 Soweto (SOuth WEstern TOwnship) on the outskirts of Johannesburg Soweto (SOuth WEstern TOwnship) on the outskirts of Johannesburg. It is the largest black urban centre in the country and was the centre of resistance against Apartheid during the 70's and 80's.
16 1976 SowetoOn June 16, 1976, students left school in Soweto and other areas to protest the requirement to learn Afrikaans, replacing English, in the sub-standard Bantu education system.English was seen as a language of freedom, connecting Africans to the larger world, while Afrikaans, a South African variety of Dutch, was seen as the language of the oppressor state, the then ruling National Party.
17 Police opened fire on the students, killing first a young boy.
18 It took the government more than 12 months to contain the unrest which began on June More than 500 people were killed and more than 2,000 were injured during the uprising which followed. Political meetings were banned, and armed police patrolled the streets of Soweto. Student leaders sought sanctuary at a nearby church. Regina Mundy church was a haven. The police were not allowed to enter its doors. But instead they fired bullets and tear gas through the windows.
19 This unfortunate series of events lead to 14 years of unremitting violence in the country.
20 Soon after the uprising, Nelson Mandela got involved Soon after the uprising, Nelson Mandela got involved. After witnessing and reading of the killings in Soweto, Mandela (head of ANC) began using violence to get his point of black equality across. The Africa National Congress now adopted the idea of terrorism as a means to their end.
21 International Pressure By the 1980’s, nations around the world pressured South Africa to end apartheid.So what could the rest of the world do?It’s another independent country- what can be done?
22 Sanctions Actions that punish a country No investmentsNo buying their productsNo tradeBanned from OlympicsAir travel restrictionsSanctions were costing them $2 Billion per year!
23 Apartheid EndsIn 1989 Mr. DeKlerk became prime minister, and started making changes, even though he was under a lot of pressure not to.He released Nelson Mandela who had been in prison 20 years for protesting Apartheid.all Apartheid laws were removed
24 Nobel Peace PrizeIn 1993 DeKlerk and Mandela were given the Nobel Peace prize for their work in bringing an end to Apartheid.
25 Majority RuleAn election that involved members of all races took place in 1994, making Nelson Mandela the first black President of South Africa.de Klerk is sworn in as deputy president.
27 Lingering ProblemsThe policy of apartheid has hurt the economy of South Africa.Many countries imposed sanctions to not do business with or invest in South Africa during apartheid.Apartheid led to poor education of blacks, creating an uneducated mass of young people.