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The Apartheid Era in South Africa 1948-1994 World Studies.

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1 The Apartheid Era in South Africa World Studies

2 Definition of Apartheid Afrikaans word meaning “apartness” or “separate” Name given to the system of racial segregation in South Africa from

3 A Quick History of South Africa Pre-1652: Black Africans such as the Khoi and San live in SA. Other Bantu speakers move in later. 1652: The Dutch (Netherlands) establish the Cape Colony (white Europeans) Early 1800’s: the British win control of the Cape Colony, push the Dutch aka Boers out. Boers and Africans fight, Boers and British fight as well (over gold, diamonds) 1910: British create Union of South Africa, allow Boers (Afrikaners, white South Africans) to rule.

4 Migrations

5 The Western Cape aka Cape Colony Good climate for farming, especially, grapes! Ideal for ships to stop en route to Asia. Beautiful scenery Best land in Africa

6 Pre Discrimination of black Africans began in colonial times under British and Dutch rule. ▫Blacks were given lowest paying jobs ▫Blacks could only own land in certain areas (8% of total land) African National Congress (ANC) was formed to organize blacks and resist oppression. Conditions for blacks worsened over time, including repealing voting rights.

7 Election of 1948 The National Party came to power ▫Afrikaners ▫Conservative, traditional values ▫Belief that segregation was “God’s Plan” Immediately, the National Party implemented laws that continued segregation. Daniel Francois Malan ->

8 Early Laws Mixed Marriages Act (1949) ▫Blacks and whites could not marry. Population Registration Act (1950) ▫All South Africans assigned to one of 3 groups:  White  Colored (mixed race, inc. Asian)  African (blacks) Group Areas Act (1950) ▫Blacks and whites were separated geographically. ▫Whites controlled best land (86%)

9 Other laws/ restrictions Segregated… Transportation Government buildings Entertainment Schools ▫Afrikaans ▫Only taught white history Sexual relations Passbooks Sound familiar?

10 Whites Only

11 Passbooks All blacks were required to carry passbooks; whites did not have to do so. Blacks were restricted as to where they could travel within South Africa. Blacks could be arrested for not carrying their passbooks.

12 Townships In cities, such as Johannesburg and Cape Town, non-whites were forced to leave their homes and live in townships. ▫Cheaply built homes ▫High population density ▫No elec, running water, sewers ▫On the edge of the city Today, areas of high poverty (slums) Some notable townships: Soweto (Joburg), Khayelitsha (CT), New Brighton (PE)

13 Townships Near Joburg

14 Khayelitsha Township, Cape Town

15 Township Road

16 Soweto, population 1,271,000

17 Poor Area in Soweto Township

18 Bantustans In 1959, 8 black homelands, or Bantustans, were created throughout South Africa In theory, each of these homelands would be governed independently by blacks. The homelands were a “show” for the outside world….blacks experienced few rights and were further separated from the South African government.


20 Opposition to Apartheid Non-violent meansWhite reaction Mass protests Letter writing Burning passbooks Civil disobedience Boycotts Refusal to work Based on teachings of Gandhi. The government responded with more laws, raids, jail, and in many cases violence.

21 Sharpeville Massacre (March 21, 1960) Sharpeville was a township near Joburg. Close to 20,000 blacks gathered to protest pass book laws. ▫Most refused to carry passbook as an act of protest. ▫None were armed. Police opened fire on the crowd, killing 69 people, injuring 180. ▫Included women and children ▫Many were killed fleeing the scene

22 Sharpeville



25 Rivonia Trial ( ) Leaders of the ANC, including Nelson Mandela, were tried for acts of sabotage attempting to overthrow the Apartheid system. Most, including Mandela, were found guilty, and sentenced to life in prison. Robben Island Prison near Cape Town A major blow to the ANC

26 Robben Island

27 Mandela’s Cell

28 Soweto Uprising (1976) Students in Soweto (SOuth WEst TOwnship) of Jo- burg, were mad that their schools lacked materials and good teachers. They also protested the policy of Afrikaans as one of the languages of instruction. ▫Angry that they had to learn the language of their oppressors—spoken nowhere else in the world—in order to function in math, science, and history classes. On June 16th 1976 Soweto students staged a massive protest against Afrikaans instruction. ▫Armed response from the government. Riots and fighting lasted for months. ▫176 were killed, with over 1000 injured. (600/2,500)

29 Soweto Uprising

30 Hector Pieterson

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