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Principles of Health Science Dr. HalbertRespiratory System Principles of Health Science Dr. Halbert
Respiratory System Consists of nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli and lungs Function: take in oxygen & remove carbon dioxide Body has 4-6 minute supply of O2
Nasal septum Divides the nose into two hollow spaces
Nasal cavities 2 hollow spaces in the nose; lined with mucous membraneMucus produced by this membrane moistens the air & traps pathogens & dirt
Cilia Tiny hairlike structures that help move the mucous layer pushing trapped particles toward the esophagus
Sinuses Cavities in the skull that surround the nasal areaWarm & moisten the air Provide resonance for the voice
Pharynx Common passageway for food & airDivided into the nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx-esophagus & trachea branch off laryngopharynx
Larynx Voice box Lies between the pharynx & trachea
Epiglottis Closes the opening to the larynx during swallowing to prevent food & liquids from entering the respiratory tract
Trachea Windpipe, tube extending from the larynx to the center of the chest Made up of a series of C-shaped cartilages
Bronchi Trachea divides into two bronchi, the right bronchus and left bronchus Each bronchus enters a lung
Bronchioles Smallest branches of the bronchi
Alveoli Air sacs in the lungs, where gas exchange takes placeBronchioles end in alveoli
Lungs Right lung has 3 lobes: superior, middle & inferiorLeft lung has 2 lobes: superior & inferior
Pleura Membrane that lines the lungs & chest wall
Ventilation Process of breathingInvolves 2 phases: inspiration & expiration
Inspiration Breathing in air Diaphragm & intercostal muscles contract
Expiration Exhaling air Diaphragm & intercostal muscles relax
External Respiration Exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide between lungs & bloodstream
Internal respiration Exchange of carbon dioxide & oxygen between the tissue cells & bloodstream
Cellular respiration Cells use oxygen & nutrients to produce energy, water & carbon dioxide
Respiratory System Diseases
Asthma Bronchospasms narrow the opening of the bronchiolesUsually caused by an allergy, overexertion, or infection
Bronchitis Inflammation of the bronchi & bronchial tubesAcute form: infection Chronic: pollutants & smoking
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)Any chronic lung disease that results in obstruction of the airways Smoking is the primary cause
Emphysema Chronic condition in which the alveoli deteriorate & lose their elasticity
Epistaxis Nose bleed Capillaries in nose become congested & bleed
Influenza Flu Highly contagious viral disease of the upper respiratory tract
Laryngitis Inflammation of the larynx & vocal cords
Pleurisy Inflammation of the pleura of the lungs
Pneumonia Inflammation or infection of the lungs characterized by a buildup of fluid in the alveoli
Rhinitis Inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes, resulting in a runny nose
Sinusitis Inflammation of the sinuses
Tuberculosis (TB) Infectious lung disease cause by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Upper respiratory infection (URI)Common cold Viral infection of the mucous membrane lining the upper respiratory tract
Image Citations Slide 5: Normal anatomy, 3/22/06, Slide 7: How the nasal passage works, 3/22/06, eze&tabalias=HowItWorks Slide 8: Sinus passages, 3/22/06, solution.com/sinuspassages.htm Slide 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17: Delmar Learning’s Medical Terminology Library, Second Edition, 2003. Slide 11: Chewing, 3/22/06, Slide 12: Animation of the swallowing process, 3/22/06, Slide 18: Pleura, 3/22/06, Slide 21: Chest changes when inhaling & exhaling, 3/22/06,
Image Citations Slide 23: External & Internal Respiration, 3/22/06, Slide 26: Asthma sufferer breathing, 3/22/06, Slide 26: Animation, 3/22/06, Slide 27, 29: Animation of lungs, 3/22/06, Slide 30: Nose bleed, 3/22/06, ears-nose-throat/nose-bleed-cause.html Slide 34: Pneumonia, 3/22/06, Slide 35: Schnupfen.jpg, 3/22/06, Slide 38: The big……sneeze, 3/22/06,
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