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Principles of Health Science Dr. Halbert

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1 Principles of Health Science Dr. Halbert
Respiratory System Principles of Health Science Dr. Halbert

2 Respiratory System Consists of nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli and lungs Function: take in oxygen & remove carbon dioxide Body has 4-6 minute supply of O2

3 Nasal septum Divides the nose into two hollow spaces

4 Nasal cavities 2 hollow spaces in the nose; lined with mucous membrane
Mucus produced by this membrane moistens the air & traps pathogens & dirt

5 Cilia Tiny hairlike structures that help move the mucous layer pushing trapped particles toward the esophagus

6 Sinuses Cavities in the skull that surround the nasal area
Warm & moisten the air Provide resonance for the voice

7 Pharynx Common passageway for food & air
Divided into the nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx-esophagus & trachea branch off laryngopharynx

8 Larynx Voice box Lies between the pharynx & trachea

9 Epiglottis Closes the opening to the larynx during swallowing to prevent food & liquids from entering the respiratory tract


11 Trachea Windpipe, tube extending from the larynx to the center of the chest Made up of a series of C-shaped cartilages

12 Bronchi Trachea divides into two bronchi, the right bronchus and left bronchus Each bronchus enters a lung

13 Bronchioles Smallest branches of the bronchi

14 Alveoli Air sacs in the lungs, where gas exchange takes place
Bronchioles end in alveoli

15 Lungs Right lung has 3 lobes: superior, middle & inferior
Left lung has 2 lobes: superior & inferior

16 Pleura Membrane that lines the lungs & chest wall

17 Ventilation Process of breathing
Involves 2 phases: inspiration & expiration

18 Inspiration Breathing in air Diaphragm & intercostal muscles contract

19 Expiration Exhaling air Diaphragm & intercostal muscles relax

20 External Respiration Exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide between lungs & bloodstream

21 Internal respiration Exchange of carbon dioxide & oxygen between the tissue cells & bloodstream

22 Cellular respiration Cells use oxygen & nutrients to produce energy, water & carbon dioxide

23 Respiratory System Diseases

24 Asthma Bronchospasms narrow the opening of the bronchioles
Usually caused by an allergy, overexertion, or infection

25 Bronchitis Inflammation of the bronchi & bronchial tubes
Acute form: infection Chronic: pollutants & smoking

26 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Any chronic lung disease that results in obstruction of the airways Smoking is the primary cause

27 Emphysema Chronic condition in which the alveoli deteriorate & lose their elasticity

28 Epistaxis Nose bleed Capillaries in nose become congested & bleed

29 Influenza Flu Highly contagious viral disease of the upper respiratory tract

30 Laryngitis Inflammation of the larynx & vocal cords

31 Pleurisy Inflammation of the pleura of the lungs

32 Pneumonia Inflammation or infection of the lungs characterized by a buildup of fluid in the alveoli

33 Rhinitis Inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes, resulting in a runny nose

34 Sinusitis Inflammation of the sinuses

35 Tuberculosis (TB) Infectious lung disease cause by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

36 Upper respiratory infection (URI)
Common cold Viral infection of the mucous membrane lining the upper respiratory tract

37 Image Citations Slide 5: Normal anatomy, 3/22/06, Slide 7: How the nasal passage works, 3/22/06, eze&tabalias=HowItWorks Slide 8: Sinus passages, 3/22/06, Slide 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17: Delmar Learning’s Medical Terminology Library, Second Edition, 2003. Slide 11: Chewing, 3/22/06, Slide 12: Animation of the swallowing process, 3/22/06, Slide 18: Pleura, 3/22/06, Slide 21: Chest changes when inhaling & exhaling, 3/22/06,

38 Image Citations Slide 23: External & Internal Respiration, 3/22/06, Slide 26: Asthma sufferer breathing, 3/22/06, Slide 26: Animation, 3/22/06, Slide 27, 29: Animation of lungs, 3/22/06, Slide 30: Nose bleed, 3/22/06, ears-nose-throat/nose-bleed-cause.html Slide 34: Pneumonia, 3/22/06, Slide 35: Schnupfen.jpg, 3/22/06, Slide 38: The big……sneeze, 3/22/06,

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