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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM LUNGS & AIR PASSAGES. WHY ARE THEY NEEDED n TAKE IN OXYGEN – GAS NEEDED BY ALL BODY CELLS n REMOVING CARBON DIOXIDE – GAS THAT IS A.

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Presentation on theme: "RESPIRATORY SYSTEM LUNGS & AIR PASSAGES. WHY ARE THEY NEEDED n TAKE IN OXYGEN – GAS NEEDED BY ALL BODY CELLS n REMOVING CARBON DIOXIDE – GAS THAT IS A."— Presentation transcript:

1 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM LUNGS & AIR PASSAGES

2 WHY ARE THEY NEEDED n TAKE IN OXYGEN – GAS NEEDED BY ALL BODY CELLS n REMOVING CARBON DIOXIDE – GAS THAT IS A WASTE PRODUCT PRODCUED BY THE CELLS

3 HOW MUCH O2 DO WE HAVE? n FOUR TO SIX MINUTES SUPPLY

4 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM n MUST WORK CONTINOUSLY OR DEATH WILL OCCUR

5 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM n NOSE n PHARYNX n LARYNX n TRACHEA n BRONCHI n ALVEOLI n LUNGS

6 NOSE n TWO NOSTRILS (NARES) – OPENINGS WHICH AIR ENTERS

7 NASAL SEPTUM n PARTITION OR WALL – CARTILAGE DIVIDES THE NOSE INTO HOLLOW SPACES

8 NASAL CAVITIES n TWO HOLLOW SPACES n LINED WITH A MUCOUS MEMBRANE n RICH BLOOD SUPPLY n WARMS AIR n FILTERS AIR n MOISTENS AIR

9 MUCOUS MEMBRANE n PRODUCES MUCOUS n TRAPS PATHOGENS – GERMS n TRAPS DIRT

10 CILIA n TINY HAIRLIKE STRUCTURES IN NASAL CAVITY n TRAPS DIRT n TRAPS PATHOGENS n TRAPPED PARTICLES PUSHED TOWARD ESOPHAGUS – SWALLOWED

11 OLFACTORY RECPTORS n LOCATED IN NASAL CAVITY n SENSE OF SMELL

12 LACRIMAL DUCTS n DRAIN TEARS FROM EYES – DRAINS INTO NOSE n PROVIDES ADDITIONAL MOISTURE FOR THE AIR

13 SINUSES n CAVITIES IN THE SKULL n AROUND THE NASAL AREA n CONNECTED TO NASAL CAVITY BY SHORT DUCTS n MUCOUS MEMBRANE – WARMS & MOISTENS AIR n RESONANCE FOR THE VOICE

14 PHARYNX n THROAT n LOCATED BEHIND THE NASAL CAVITIES n AIR LEAVES NOSE & ENTERS PHARYNX

15 THREE SECTIONS OF THE PHARYNX n NASOPHARYNX n OROPHARYNX n LARYNGOPHARYNX

16 NASOPHARYNX n UPPER PORTION BEHIND NASAL CAVITIES n PHARYNGEAL TONSILS – ADENOIDS n LYMPHATIC TISSUE – EUSTACHIAN TUBE OPENINGS LOCATED

17 OROPHARYNX n MIDDLE SECTION n LOCATED BEDHIND ORAL CAVITY n RECEIVES AIR & FOOD FROM THE MOUTH

18 LARYNGOPHARYNX n BOTTOM SECTION OF PHARYNX n BRANCHES INTO – TRACHEA n CARRIES AIR TO AND FROM THE LUNGS – ESOPHAGUS n CARRIES FOOD TO STOMACH

19 LARYNX n VOICE BOX – BETWEEN THE PHARYNX & TRACHEA n CARTILAGE CALLED – ADAMS APPLE

20 LARYNX n VOCAL CORDS – TWO FOLDS n OPENING BETWEEN VOCAL CORDS – GLOTTIS n AIR ENTERS LUNGS – VOCAL CORDS VIBRATE n PRODUCE SOUND OR SPEECH

21 LARYNX n EPIGLOTTIS – PIECE OF CARTILAGE – LEAF LIKE STRUCTURE – CLOSES THE OPENING INTO LARYNX DURING SWALLOWING – PREVENTS FOOD & LIQUIDS FROM ENTERING RESPIRATORY TRACT

22 TRACHEA OR WINDPIPE n TUBE EXTENDING FROM LARYNX TO CENTER OF CHEST n CARRIES AIR BETWEEN PHARYNX & BRONCHI n SERIES OF C-SHAPED CARTILAGE – OPEN ON THE DORSAL SURFACE – HELPS KEEP TRACHEA OPEN

23 BRONCHI n TWO DIVISIONS OF TRACHEA – NEAR CENTER OF CHEST n BRONCHUS – ENTERS LUNG – CARRIES AIR – TRACHEA TO LUNGS n LUNGS – BRONCHI DIVIDE INTO SMALLER BRONCHI

24 SMALLEST BRACHES n BRONCHIOLES – END IN AIR SACS CALLED ALVEOLI

25 ALVEOLI n AIR SACS – RESEMBLE BUNCH OF GRAPES – ONE LAYER OF SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM TISSUE – RICH NETWORK OF BLOOD CAPILLARIES – CAPILLARIES n ALLOW OXYGEN & CARBON DIOXIDE TO EXCHANGE BETWEEN LUNGS & BLOOD

26 LUNGS n ORGANS – DIVISIONS OF THE BRONCHI & ALVEOLI n RIGHT LUNG – 3 SECTIONS OR LOBES n SUPERIOR, MIDDLE & INFERIOR n LEFT LUNG – TWO LOBES n SUPERIOR & INFERIOR – SMALLER n HEART LIES MORE TO THE LEFT SIDE OF CHEST

27 PLEURA n MEMBRANE OR SAC ENCLOSING EACH LUNG n THORACIC CAVITY – BOTH LUNGS – HEART – MAJOR BLOOD VESSELS

28 PROCESS OF RESPIRATION n TWO PHASES – INSPIRATION – EXPIRATION

29 INSPIRATION n INHALATION n PROCESS OF BREATHING IN AIR n DIAPHRAGM – DOME SHAPED MUSCLE THORACIC & ABDOMINAL CAVITY – IN

30 DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

31 ASTHMA n RESPIRATORY DISORDER

32 CAUSATIVE AGENTS n SENSITIVITY TO AN ALLERGEN – DUST – POLLEN – ANIMALS – FOODS n STRESS n OVEREXERTION n INFECTIONS

33 SYMPTOMS OCCUR n BRONCHOSPASMS NARROW OPENING OF BRONCHIOLES n MUCUS PRODUCTION INCREASES n EDEMA DEVELOPS IN MUCOSAL LINING

34 SYMPTOMS n DYSPNEA n WHEEZING n COUGHING WITH EXPECTORATION OF SPUTUM n TIGHTNESS IN CHEST

35 TREATMENT n BRONCHODILATORS TO ENLARGE BRONCHIOLES n EPINEPHRINE n OXYGEN THERAPY

36 PREVENTING ASTHMA ATTACKS n IDENTIFY ALLERGEN n ELIMINATE ALLERGEN n DESENSITIZATION TO ALLERGENS

37 BRONCHITIS n INFLAMMATION – BRONCHI – BRONCHIAL TUBES

38 ACUTE BRONCHITIS n CAUSED BY INFECTION n SYMPTOMS – PRODUCTIVE COUGH – DYSPNEA – CHEST PAIN – FEVER

39 TREATMENT n ANTIBIOTICS n EXPECTORANTS TO REMOVE EXCESSIVE MUCUS

40 CHRONIC BRONCHITIS n OCCURS AFTER FREQUENT ATTACKS OF ACUTE BRONCHITIS n LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO POLLUTANTS OR SMOKING n CHARACTERIZED BY CHRONIC INFLAMMATION – DAMAGED CILIA – ENLARGED MUCOUS GLANDS

41 SYMPTOMS n EXCESSIVE MUCUS – PRODUCTIVE COUGH – WHEEZING & DYSPNEA – CHEST PAIN – PROLONGED EXPIRATION OF AIR

42 TREATMENT n NO CURE n ANTIBIOTICS n BRONCHODILATORS n RESPIRATORY THERAPY

43 COPD n CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE n ANY CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE THAT RESULTS IN OBSTRUCTION OF AIRWAY

44 COPD n INCLUDE DISORDERS SUCH AS – ASTHMA – CHRONIC BRONCHITIS – EMPHYSEMA – TB

45 CAUSES n SMOKING IS THE PRIMARY CAUSE n OTHER FACTORS INCLUDE – ALLERGIES – CHRONIC RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

46 EMPHYSEMA n NONINFECTIOUS CHRONIC RESPIRATORY CONDITION – WALLS OF THE ALVEOLI DETERIORATE – LOSE ELASTICITY n CARBON DIOXIDE REMAINS TRAPPED IN THE ALVEOLI n POOR EXCHANGE OF GASES

47 CAUSE n HEAVY SMOKING n PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTANTS

48 SYMPTOMS n DYSPNEA n FEELING OF SUFFOCATION n PAIN n BARREL CHEST n CHRONIC COUGH n CYANOSIS n RAPID RESPIRATIONS WITH PROLONGED EXPIRATION n RESPIRATORY FALURE ……….DEATH

49 TREATMENT n NO CURE n AVOID SMOKING n BRONCHODILATORS n PROMPT TREATMENT OF RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS n OXYGEN THERAPY n RESPIRATORY THERAPY

50 EPISTAXIS n NOSEBLEED – CAPILLARIES IN NOSE BECOME CONGESTED AND BLEED

51 CAUSES n INJURY OR BLOW TO NOSE n HYPERTENSION n CHRONIC INFECTIONS n ANTICOAGULANT DRUGS n BLOOD DISEASES – HEMOPHILIA – LEUKEMIA

52 TREATMENT n COMPRESS NOSTRILS n ELEVATE HEAD n TILT FORWARD SLIGHTLY n APPLY COLD COMPRESSES n NASAL PACKS n CAUTERIZE THE BLEEDING VESSEL n ELIMINATE UNDERLYING CAUSE

53 INFLUENZA (FLU) n CONTAGIOUS VIRAL INFECTION – UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM – SUDDEN ONSET

54 SYMPTOMS n CHILLS n FEVER n COUGH n SORE THROAT n RUNNY NOSE n MUSCLE PAIN n FATIGUE

55 TREATMENT n BED REST n FLUIDS n ANALGESICS – PAIN – FEVER n ANTIBIOTICS – NOT EFFECTIVE AGAINST VIRUSES – GIVEN TO AVOID SECONDARY INFECTIONS n PNEUMONIA

56 LARYNGITIS n INFLAMMATION – LARYNX – VOCAL CORDS n MAY OCCUR WITH RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

57 SYMPTOMS n HOARSENESS n LOSS OF VOICE n SORE THROAT n DYSPHAGIA n DIFFICULTY IN SWALLOWING

58 TREATMENT n REST n FLUIDS n LIMITED USE OF THE VOICE n MEDICATIONS – INFECTION IF PRESENT

59 PLEURISY n INFLAMMATION OF PLEURA – MEMBRANES OF THE LUNGS n OCCURS WITH PNEUMONIA OR OTHER INFECTIONS

60 SYMPTOMS n SHARP STABBING PAIN WHILE BREATHING n CREPITATION – GRATING SOUNDS IN THE LUNGS n DYSPNEA n FEVER

61 TREATMENT n REST n MEDICATIONS TO RELIEVE PAIN & INFLAMMATION n FLUID COLLECTION IN PLEURAL SPACE – THORACENTESIS n WITHDRAWAL OF FLIUD THROUGH A NEEDLE

62 PNEUMONIA n INFLAMMATION n INFECTION OF LUNGS n BUILD UP OF EXUDATE IN ALVEOLI n CAUSED BY BACTERIA, VIRUS, OR CHEMICALS

63 SYMPTOMS n CHILLS n FEVER n CHEST PAIN n PRODUCTIVE COUGH n DYSPNEA n FATIGUE

64 TREATMENT n BEDREST n FLUIDS n ANTIBIOTICS IF INDICATED n RESPIRATORY THERAPY n PAIN MEDICATION

65 RHINITIS n INFLAMMATION OF NASAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE – RUNNY NOSE – SORENESS – CONGESTION

66 COMMON CAUSES n INFECTIONS n ALLERGENS

67 TREATMENT n FLUIDS n MEDICATION TO RELIEVE CONGESTION

68 SINUSITIS n INFLAMMATION n OF MUCOUS MEMBRANE LINING SINUSES n CAUSED BY BACTERIA OR VIRUS

69 SYMPTOMS n HEADACHE n PRESSURE n THICK NASAL DISCHARE n CONGESTION n LOSS OF RESONANCE IN VOICE

70 TREATMENT n ANALGESICS n MEDICATIONS TO LOOSEN SECRETIONS n MOIST INHALATIONS n SURGERY – CHRONIC SINUSITIS n OPENS CAVITIES – ENCOURAGE DRAINAGE

71 TB n TUBERCULOSIS – INFECTIOUS DISEASE OF THE LUNGS n CAUSED BY BACTERIA n MYCOBACTERUIM TUBERCULOSIS

72 WBC n MAY SURROUND INVADING TB ORGAMISMS n WALLS OFF CREATING A NODULE CALLED TUBERCLE n ORGANISMS REMAIN DORMANT IN THE TUBERCLE n CAN CAUSE ACTIVE CASE OF TB – LATER IF BODY REISITANCE IS LOW

73 SYMPTOMS OF ACTIVE TB n FATIGUE n CHEST PAIN n FEVER n NIGHT SWEATS n WEIGHT LOSS n HEMOPTYSIS – COUGHING UP BLOOD TINGED SPUTUM

74 TREATMENT n ADMINISTRATION OF DRUGS – DESTROY BACTERIA n GOOD NUTRITION n REST

75 URI n UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTION n COMMON COLD n INFLAMMATION OF MUCOUS MEMBRANE LINING UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT

76 CAUSED BY n VIRUSES n HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS

77 SYMPTOMS n FEVER n RUNNY NOSE n WATERY EYES n CONGESTION n SORE THROAT n HACKING COUGH

78 NO CURE n MINIMAL TREATMENT n SYMPTOMS LAST ABOUT 1 WEEK n ANALGESICS FOR PAIN & FEVER n REST n INCREASED FLUID INTAKE n ANTIHISTAMINES – RELIEVES CONGESTION

79 THE END


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