Presentation on theme: "Persuasive Techniques AKA: How some people are able to argue so effectively."— Presentation transcript:
Persuasive Techniques AKA: How some people are able to argue so effectively
Definition Persuasion: writing meant to convince readers to think or act in a certain way
Persuasive Writers/Thinkers Appeal to emotions or reason, offer opinions, and urge action Back up points with evidence Use charged words – Words producing strong emotional responses (ex. “Tyranny” may provoke outrage) Form appropriate diction – The choice and arrangement of words; may be casual, formal, sophisticated, or simple; often altered to address the aims of the speech and the type of audience
Persuasive Appeals Effective persuasion involves making appeals to various parts of the psyche Ethos: an appeal to ethics / morals / values (causes listeners to trust the strong character of the speaker) – Ex. “I am a responsible student who honors school policies; however, I even think the school dress code policy needs to change.” Pathos: appeals to emotions (stirs audience up; pulls at their heart strings) – Ex. “Animals are treated inhumanely and suffer in harsh conditions just so we can have meat on the table each night.” Logos: appeals to logic (it makes good sense) – Ex. “Changing to school uniforms might prevent students from expressing themselves fashionably, and they might resort to less peaceful ways of expressing themselves.”
Persuasive Techniques Restatement: repeating an idea in a variety of ways – “Mr. President, it is natural to indulge in the illusions of hope. We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth.” Repetition: restating an idea using the same words Parallelism: repeating the grammatical structures – “He has endeavored…” – “He has obstructed…” – “He has made judges…” – “He has erected…” Rhetorical Question: asking a question whose answer is self-evident
Persuasive Techniques Cont’d Hyperbole: extreme exaggeration – Ex. “I’ve told you a million times to study your vocabulary every night.” Bandwagon: you should take action because everyone else is doing it – Ex. “Everyone else’s parents are letting them stay over night.” Card Stacking: telling the perspective of only one side; not acknowledging negatives (AVOID) Personal Anecdote: stories from personal experiences that give the speaker/writer validity and credibility Appeal to Authority: A writer may mention an important event or person in an essay to lend importance or credibility to his/her argument. Ex. Mr. Cain believes The Crucible is an important play.
Persuasive Techniques Cont’d Analogy: This tool is not limited to poets. Essay writers often use figures of speech or comparisons (simile, metaphor, personification) for desired emphasis. Ex. Your brain on drugs is like an egg frying in a pan. Ad Hominem: Directly attacks someone’s appearance, personal habits, or character rather than focusing on the merit of the issue at hand. Straw Man: Here is a technique we have all seen and heard by politicians. The speaker/writer attributes false or exaggerated behaviors to the opponent and attacks him on those falsehoods or exaggerations.