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Published byAdele Hampton Modified over 8 years ago
Is it more important to know the truth or to be able to convince someone of something?
Argument is writing that takes a position on an issue and gives evidence to back it up. It wants the audience to be persuaded to do or to think something.
Claim: This is the position you are taking in the overall conversation. Reasons: Why you are taking this side of the argument. Support/Evidence: This is the proof that backs up your claim.
Counterarguments/Objections: This is where you address what others might say against your argument. Builds credibility Recognizes other side
You can disarm disagreements and criticism before they even happen. This will enhance your credibility and make your argument more convincing.
Art of using language effectively and persuasively Most often seen in speeches Uses rhetorical appeals(proof) Uses rhetorical devices -
Communicator/ Writer Audience/ Reader Message/ Text
Logos- “refers to the argument's ‘logical appeals,’ appeal to a reader’s sense of reason” includes facts, statistics, details What facts and other supporting details does the writer use to back up his or her claims?
“Pathos- refers to the argument's ‘emotional appeals,’ that is, how well the writer taps into the reader's emotions. Emotional appeals might inspire patriotism, happiness, sadness, anger, and other emotions in the audience.” What emotions does the writer use against the reader?
Ethos: the source's credibility, the speaker's/author's authority “We tend to believe people whom we respect. One of the central problems of argumentation is to project an impression to the reader that you are someone worth listening to, in other words making yourself as author into an authority on the subject of the paper, as well as someone who is likable and worthy of respect.” How does the writer try to make him, herself, or even a company more credible?
Product- Jennifer Lopez perfume Credibility- pop star, model, fashion designer Why buy this perfume? I will be strong and beautiful like Jennifer Lopez!
Powerful language is needed to create a persuasive argument Authors use devices for a variety of purposes: 1. create flow and rhythm 2. emphasize major points 3. make connections for the readers
- Rhetorical ?- question that requires no answer Ex: Why could I never please? Why was it useless to try to win anyone’s favor? (Jane already knows the painful answers to these questions; they just reflect her unhappiness.) Repetition : REPEATS PHARSES, WORDS- FOR DERSIRED EFFECT PURPOSE: EMPHASIS; GET AUDIENCE TO ENGAGE(THINK) ABOUT THE ARGUMENT
A CONCISE STATEMENT OF TRUTH Ex: A penny saved is a penny earned; Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise. Purpose: builds ethos by connecting to audience with something they may know or something they can use later
Parallel Structure - repetition of same grammatical structure; match noun w/noun, verb w/verb, etc. All elements have equal importance and are similarly phrased. Ex: The burden must be carried; the want provided for; the suffering endured; the responsibility fulfilled. Purpose: creates flow and rhythm
A DIRECT OR INDRIECT REFERNECE TO ANOTHER PIECE OF LITERATURE OR WORK OF ART LOTS OF ALLUSIONS TO THE BIBLE Ex: Frankenstein is often compared to Adam the first man since he was the first of his kind Purpose: provides a context by connecting to another piece
A comparison of two similar situations implying the outcome of one will resemble the outcome of another Conaway’s analogy of driving the car and needing to know the destination to looking at each embedded assessment and discovering what activities and knowledge we must have Purpose: makes a connection for the reader
Hyperbole- extreme exaggeration Simile- comparison using like or as Metaphor- direct comparison Purpose: Use of these figurative language techniques adds to understanding; makes connections for readers
Contrast between what is said and what is meant Oedipus curses the murderer of Laius. Not realizing he is the murderer, he is cursing himself. Purpose: sometimes can add emotion like shock or humor
Antithesis - strongly contrasting words, clauses, sentences, or ideas Ex: Give me liberty or give me death! Purpose: powerful, evoke emotion
- unassociated ideas, words, or phrases placed next to one another creating an effect of surprise or wit Ex: “ a liberal America or a conservative America ” Purpose: emphasizes differences to show similarities
- repetition of word or phrase at beginning of verses, clauses, paragraphs I was pregnant with poverty, pregnant with dirt, pregnant with smells, pregnant with cold. Purpose: creates rhythm and flow and adds emphasis; enhance understanding
P: Purpose- what is the point of the argument? LOGOS? ETHOS? PATHOS? A: Audience- who is the intended audience? Who is the author appealing to? T: Theme- what is the author’s commentary on the subject: T:Tone- how does the speaker feel about the subject/topic? Look @ diction, images, details, syntax R: Rhetorical Strategies- what are the rhetorical strategies and how do they help the argument?
Start with a hook- engage audience Use rhetorical devices and rhetorical appeals Don’t forget counterarguments End with a call to action – restate claim and appeal to values
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