Using Rhetorical Devices
Persuasion Using Rhetorical Devices
Types of Speeches Political speeches: Address: Sermon:
Focuses on an issue relating to government or politics Address: A formal speech that is prepared for a special occasion Sermon: A speech that is usually based on a scriptural text and intended to provide religious instruction.
Persuasion: Speech or writing that tries to get the audience to think or act a certain way. Persuasive Techniques: The methods that a speaker or a writer uses to sway an audience.
Types of Persuasive Techniques
Logical appeal (logos): Builds a well-reasoned argument based on evidence such as facts, statistics, or expert testimony.
Ethical Appeal (ethos)
Arguments are based on morals and values of a culture that ask the audience to do what is “right” according to what the culture deems correct This appeal is linked to the audience’s perception of the trustworthiness and moral character of the speaker or writer.
Emotional Appeal (pathos)
Attempts to arouse the audience’s feelings, often by using loaded words that convey strong connotations The argument strives to appeal to the audience’s sense of fear, pity, needs, desires and sympathies.
How Persuasive Techniques are used:
Rhetorical Devices: Patterns of words and ideas that create emphasis and stir the audience’s emotions.
Types of Rhetorical Devices
Repetition: Restating an idea using the same words Example: “The war is inevitable—and let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it come!” ~Patrick Henry
Restatement: Expressing the same idea using different words.
Example: “…we cannot dedicate—we cannot consecrate—we cannot hallow—this ground.” ~Abraham Lincoln
Parallelism: Repeating a grammatical structure
Example: “With malice toward none; with charity for all…” ~Abraham Lincoln
Antithesis: Using strongly contrasting words, images, or ideas
Example: “…ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.” ~John F. Kennedy
Asking questions for effect, not to get answers Example: “From such an assembly can a perfect production be expected?” ~Benjamin Franklin
Identify persuasive techniques by:
Ask yourself if the speaker or writer relies primarily on logical, emotional, ethical appeals or a combination of these appeals. If logic, is it based on sound evidence? If emotional, is it manipulative as well as stirring? If ethical, examine the speaker’s authority to comment and the value he/she states or implies.
Identify Rhetorical Devices by:
Look for the use of the specific words or phrases as given (repetition, restatement, parallelism, antithesis, or rhetorical questions) Then, notice how these devices affect the sound and meaning of the speech or writing
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