Presentation on theme: "The Three Argument Appeals, Aristotle’s Methods of Convincing Logos Pathos Ethos."— Presentation transcript:
The Three Argument Appeals, Aristotle’s Methods of Convincing Logos Pathos Ethos
Logos (Reason) Logical appeals include convincing reasons and evidence.
Logos (Reason) Reasons are statements that explain why the author holds an opinion. Example: Citizens should be required to vote because only then will elected officials represent all the people.
Logos (Reason) Evidence is the specific information that is used to back up a reason.
Logos Types of evidence often used include the following: Facts – can be proven Expert opinions or quotations Definitions – statement of meaning of word or phrase Statistics – offer scientific support Logos (Reason)
Logos More types of evidence: Examples – powerful illustrations Anecdote – incident, often based on writer’s personal experience Present opposition– given reasons and evidence to prove the opposition wrong Logos (Reason)
Logos inductive. Reason which begins with specifics and moves toward a generalization is inductive. Example: Several clubs have reported difficulty completing their business during lunch period. This proves that lunch periods should be longer. Logos (Reason)
Logos Deductive. Reason which starts with a general observation and moves to specifics is Deductive. Example: When people hurry, inefficiency and poor communication are the results. Under current conditions clubs must hurry at lunch time meetings. Therefore, lunch period should be lengthened to allow for better club meetings. Logos (Reason)
Ethos (Ethics) Convince your readers that you are fair, honest, and well informed. Then they will trust your values and intentions. Avoid over-use of negatively charged words.
Pathos (Emotions) Emotional appeals stir feelings such as happiness or anger in readers. Authors often use emotional appeals because they know that our emotions may override our reason.
Pathos (Emotions) Emotional appeals usually use the following: Loaded words– words with strong emotional associations Anecdotes– brief stories or personal accounts of an event or happening
The Language of Persuasion To involve the reader and persuade them to share their point of view, the writer will sometimes use the following: Personal pronouns—I, you, us, we, our Rhetorical question—What do you think? Emotional words and ideas Personal stories
The Language of Persuasion To emphasize ideas and points, the writer will sometimes use the following: Repetition of words—Better health, better homes, better opportunities Short, simple sentences
Similes—comparison using “like” or “as” The new health care plan is like a boulder in the path to equality. Metaphor—comparison using “is” or “was” Changing school start time is a beast. Personification—describing something that’s not a person as if it were a person Standardized testing allows the government to reach its fingers into our schools. The Language of Persuasion To emphasize ideas and points, the writer may also use types of figurative language:
Alliteration—repeating sounds at the beginning of words The big, bad, and bold leaders need to listen to the people. Hyperbole—exaggeration School will be a thousand times worse if we change the lunch policy. Allusions—references to well-known events, movies, TV shows Just as Superman saved the city from evil, so we must save our community from the evils of falling buildings. The Language of Persuasion
When giving a persuasive speech, speakers may also use dramatic elements to emphasize their arguments. A speaker may use the following dramatic elements: Gestures– movements with their arms or hands Posture—how they hold their bodies Movements—walking from one location to another