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Propaganda/Persuasion Techniques How the media influences us.

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1 Propaganda/Persuasion Techniques How the media influences us

2 What is propaganda? A way to persuade people by using images and words to achieve a desired affect or outcome.

3 Propaganda/Persuasive Techniques Advertisements and other methods of persuasion (political) may contain rhetorical fallacies Rhetorical Fallacies –An argument that is not sound but may still be convincing (if you really think about it, is it true?)

4 Ad Hominem “ad hominem” means against the man or against the person (Latin) Attack the character or circumstance of “the other side” in order to distract from the argument. Devalues the argument because of the person who is making the claim, regardless of the evidence provided

5 Ad Hominem Examples “We shouldn't be surprised that Senator Smith supports this new tax - considering how long he has been working in politics, it would be a shock if he didn't support it!” “John has been proven to be a liar numerous times, therefore you should reject his testimony and acquit my client.” What are some ad hominem arguments you have heard or used?

6 Exaggeration An overstatement or excessive representation of more than is true –Everyone gets to go to the party except me.

7 Exaggeration BIC Razors

8 Stereotyping Generalization that allows everyone who is given a specific label to also have attributed to them a set of characteristics Can be used to cast a group of people as “good” or “bad”

9 Stereotyping

10 Categorical Claims A claim is based on the faulty logic of relating two things solely because they are in the same category Example: Chihuahuas are good inside dogs. Rottweilers are dogs; therefore, Rottweilers would be good inside dogs, too

11 Categorical Claims

12 Testimonial Famous people, or someone respected or liked, claims that something is good or advertises or promotes a product or idea, even though they may or may not be experts – and may even be getting paid to recommend a product or endorse an idea.

13 Testimonial

14 Logical Appeals Relies on faulty logic, a mistake in reasoning For example: Because everything in Texas is bigger, you can expect a bigger salary in Texas Also referred to as logos

15 Logical Appeals


17 Emotional Appeals Appeal to the audience’s emotions This is usually an unfair appeal because it is using the reader’s fear, anger, or joy to push an idea Also referred to as pathos

18 Emotional Appeals

19 Ethical Appeals The author unfairly or unreasonably gives himself authority Relies on celebrities or authorities Also referred to as ethos

20 Ethical Appeals Example

21 Appeal to Authority A writer may mention an important event or person to lend importance or credibility to his/her argument. Appeals to authority have important and powerful people supporting the product or idea.

22 Appeal to Authority Example

23 Scare Tactics Informs people that personal danger is imminent if they do or do not take a specific action.

24 Scare Tactics

25 False Need People are persuaded to do something by letting them know that others are doing it as well. This technique is contrived peer pressure – no one wants to be left out or behind, so they decide they “need” whatever everyone else has.

26 False Need

27 One Final Advertisement…

28 Things to Remember: Be sure to consider - Who is the audience for this image? Does this image ask the audience to take action of some sort or just believe a certain idea? What do you think is the author’s/designer’s purpose for creating this? What is the argument this image makes?

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