Elements of an Argument
Rhetorical Triangle pathos ethos audience speaker message logos
The Appeals pathos – emotional appeal; stirs strong feelings within the audience logos – logical appeal; constructs a message of a well-reasoned argument ethos – ethical appeal; establishes credibility and authority of speaker
How do I identify pathos?
Connotative diction Diction Imagery Figurative language (metaphor, personification, hyperbole, etc. ) Carefully-crafted syntax (sentence structure) Personal anecdotes (experiences or stories)
How do I identify logos? Facts Statistics Research
Referring to experts Cause & effect
How do I identify ethos? Stating qualifications for expertise
Using first person plural pronouns (“we”) Citing relevant authorities Citing relevant allusions
More parts to the construction of an argument…
Call to action – the action the speaker or writer is persuading the audience or reader to take
Claim – debatable controversial statement the speaker or writer intends to prove with evidence Commentary – connecting the evidence to the claim (How does evidence support claim?) Concession – respectful acknowledgement of opposing viewpoint
Hook – the beginning of a persuasive essay meant to capture the reader’s attention (quote, profound statement, imagery, etc.) Evidence – support for writer’s claim (examples, anecdotes, facts, statistics, research, etc.) Thesis – a sentence that expresses the writer’s position on a certain topic Qualifier – puts limits on a claim (usually, sometimes, in most cases, etc.)
Constructing an Argument
1. Introduction a. Hook b. Thesis 2. Body Paragraph 1 a. Claim b. Evidence c. Commentary Body Paragraph 2 4. Body Paragraph 3 5. Conclusion a. Refutation – (slight CONCESSION) b. Make it memorable (CALL TO ACTION)
Terms of Concessions I concede that…; however, … Yes, but…
I recognize that …, but I must point out that… While I agree that…, we must remember that… Although I understand that…, I still believe that…
© 2023 SlidePlayer.com Inc.
All rights reserved.