SSUSH10 The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. a. Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Republican Reconstruction. b. Explain efforts to redistribute land in the South among the former slaves and provide advanced education (Morehouse College) and describe the role of the Freedmens Bureau. c. Describe the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. d. Explain Black Codes, the Ku Klux Klan, and other forms of resistance to racial equality during Reconstruction. e. Explain the impeachment of Andrew Johnson in relationship to Reconstruction. f. Analyze how the presidential election of 1876 and the subsequent compromise of 1877 marked the end of Reconstruction.
Reconstruction The rebuilding of the South after the Civil War Plans for reconstruction: –Lincoln: 10% Plan Required 10% of states eligible voters to swear allegiance to U.S. for state to reenter union –Wade-Davis Bill: Required over 50% of states eligible voters to swear allegiance to U.S. for state to reenter union DID YOU KNOW: The Wade-Davis Bill would also have permanently banned any Confederate politician or soldier from voting or holding public office.
Assassination of Lincoln Assassinated on April 14, 1865 –Attending Our American Cousin at Fords Theatre –Killed by John Wilkes Booth
Freedmans Bureau Operational from Goal: –Protect rights of African-Americans in the South –Advance education, provide work opportunities and negotiate labor contracts Eventually even operated as courts for suits involving African-Americans
Different Views of Reconstruction Presidential Lenient (forgiving) Radical Republican Punitive (punishment)
Johnson and Reconstruction Andrew Johnson, a Democrat from the South, becomes President after Lincolns death Civil Rights Act of 1866 –Vetoed by Johnson Overridden by Congress –Why? Guaranteed equal rights to black Americans
Johnson and Impeachment Johnson was unpopular –Northerners Southern, too friendly to South –Southerners Traitor to the South Impeachment –Tenure in Office Act (1867) Fired Secretary of State Seward –Congress impeaches Johnson (1867) Acquitted by one vote Johnson becomes compliant with the Republicans.
Radical Reconstruction Period beginning in 1866 Goals: –Punish the South –Protect Rights of Freedmen How? –Keeping former Confederates from voting –13 th, 14 th, 15 th Amendments –Use of military forces
Civil War Amendments 13 th Amendment –Abolishes slavery 14 th Amendment –Makes former slaves citizens of the U.S. –All people born in the U.S. (except Indians or visitors) are citizens 15 th Amendment –Gives all men the right to vote, regardless of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude"
Military Reconstruction South divided into 5 military districts –All states except Tennessee –Georgia was in the 3 rd District Last to be reinstated to the Union (July 15, 1870)
Reforms of Reconstruction Land: –Attempt to redistribute land –40 acres and a mule –Failed –Never was an official policy of the United States Government, policy by General Sherman. –President Andrew Johnson gave the land back to the original white owners.
Reforms of Reconstruction Education: –Emphasized in black community –Public, segregated schools created –Higher Education: Ex. Morehouse College, founded 1867 in Atlanta to provide advanced education to freed slaves.
Carpetbaggers and Scalawags Carpetbagger: –Southern term for a Northerner who moved to the South during Reconstruction Viewed as an opportunist trying to take advantage of Southerners Scalawag: –Term for a Southern Republican or supporter of Reconstruction Viewed as a traitor to the South
Southern Reactions to Reconstruction Black Codes: –Laws that limited African-American rights Ku Klux Klan: –Terrorist group –Sought to punish Republicans & African-Americans who attempted to exercise their rights
Political cartoon threatening lynching to carpetbaggers Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Independent Monitor, 1868
African-American Politics Many African-Americans given right to vote 15 African-Americans elected to the House of Representatives, 2 to the Senate Hiram Rhodes Revels, the first African-American U.S. Senator, from Mississippi. Served Blanche Bruce, the second African-American U.S. Senator, from Mississippi. Served
Rise of the Redeemers Southern Democrats Took over state governments across the South Beliefs: –White supremacy –Economic modernization was needed DID YOU KNOW: The Redeemers took away African-American and poor white voting rights by requiring poll taxes, literacy tests or residency requirements (grandfather clauses) to vote. Sonny Perdue, the 81 st Governor of GA, was the first Republican elected Governor in Georgia since the end of Reconstruction in 1872.