2 SSUSH10 The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. a. Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Republican Reconstruction.b. Explain efforts to redistribute land in the South among the former slaves and provide advanced education (Morehouse College) and describe the role of the Freedmen’s Bureau.c. Describe the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments.d. Explain Black Codes, the Ku Klux Klan, and other forms of resistance to racial equality during Reconstruction.e. Explain the impeachment of Andrew Johnson in relationship to Reconstruction.f. Analyze how the presidential election of 1876 and the subsequent compromise of 1877 marked the end of Reconstruction.
3 Reconstruction The rebuilding of the South after the Civil War Plans for reconstruction:Lincoln: 10% PlanRequired 10% of state’s eligible voters to swear allegiance to U.S. for state to reenter unionWade-Davis Bill:Required over 50% of state’s eligible voters to swear allegiance to U.S. for state to reenter unionDID YOU KNOW: The Wade-Davis Bill would also have permanently banned any Confederate politician or soldier from voting or holding public office.
4 Assassination of Lincoln Assassinated on April 14, 1865Attending “Our American Cousin” at Ford’s TheatreKilled by John Wilkes Booth
5 Freedman’s Bureau Operational from 1865-1872 Goal: Protect rights of African-Americans in the SouthAdvance education, provide work opportunities and negotiate labor contractsEventually even operated as courts for suits involving African-Americans
6 Different Views of Reconstruction PresidentialLenient (forgiving)Radical RepublicanPunitive (punishment)Why?
7 Johnson and Reconstruction Andrew Johnson, a Democrat from the South, becomes President after Lincoln’s deathCivil Rights Act of 1866Vetoed by JohnsonOverridden by CongressWhy?Guaranteed equal rights to black Americans
8 Johnson and Impeachment Johnson was unpopularNortherners → Southern, too friendly to SouthSoutherners → Traitor to the SouthImpeachmentTenure in Office Act (1867)Fired Secretary of State SewardCongress impeaches Johnson (1867)Acquitted by one voteJohnson becomes compliant with the Republicans.
9 Radical Reconstruction Period beginning in 1866Goals:Punish the SouthProtect Rights of FreedmenHow?Keeping former Confederates from voting13th, 14th, 15th AmendmentsUse of military forces
10 Civil War Amendments 13th Amendment 14th Amendment 15th Amendment Abolishes slavery14th AmendmentMakes former slaves citizens of the U.S.All people born in the U.S. (except Indians or visitors) are citizens15th AmendmentGives all men the right to vote, regardless of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude"
11 Military Reconstruction South divided into 5 military districtsAll states except TennesseeGeorgia was in the 3rd DistrictLast to be reinstated to the Union (July 15, 1870)
12 Reforms of Reconstruction Land:Attempt to redistribute land“40 acres and a mule”FailedNever was an official policy of the United States Government, policy by General Sherman.President Andrew Johnson gave the land back to the original white owners.Why?
13 Reforms of Reconstruction Education:Emphasized in black communityPublic, segregated schools createdHigher Education:Ex. Morehouse College, founded 1867 in Atlanta to provide advanced education to freed slaves.Why was educationconsidered important?
14 “Carpetbaggers” and “Scalawags” Southern term for a Northerner who moved to the South during ReconstructionViewed as an opportunist trying to take advantage of SouthernersScalawag:Term for a Southern Republican or supporter of ReconstructionViewed as a traitor to the South
15 Southern Reactions to Reconstruction Black Codes:Laws that limited African-American rightsKu Klux Klan:Terrorist groupSought to punish Republicans & African-Americans who attempted to exercise their rights
17 Political cartoon threatening lynching to carpetbaggers Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Independent Monitor, 1868
18 African-American Politics Many African-Americans given right to vote15 African-Americans elected to the House of Representatives, 2 to the SenateHiram Rhodes Revels, the first African-American U.S. Senator, from Mississippi. ServedBlanche Bruce, the second African-American U.S. Senator, from Mississippi. Served
19 Rise of the “Redeemers” Southern DemocratsTook over state governments across the SouthBeliefs:White supremacyEconomic modernization was neededSonny Perdue, the 81st Governor of GA, was the first Republican elected Governor in Georgia since the end of Reconstruction in 1872.DID YOU KNOW: The Redeemers took away African-American and poor white voting rights by requiring poll taxes, literacy tests or residency requirements (“grandfather clauses”) to vote.