Presentation on theme: "INTERCULTURAL BUSINESS COMMUNICATION INSTRUCTOR: HSIN-HSIN CINDY LEE, PHD Unit 5: Synthetic Cultures Section A."— Presentation transcript:
INTERCULTURAL BUSINESS COMMUNICATION INSTRUCTOR: HSIN-HSIN CINDY LEE, PHD Unit 5: Synthetic Cultures Section A
Contents Part I Introduction to Culture and Synthetic Cultures Part II Dimensions of Synthetic Cultures Part III Exercise Checkpoint & References
PART I Introduction to ‘Culture’ & Synthetic Cultures
Basic Concepts of ‘Culture’ Culture distinguishes one group of people from another. There are an infinite number of ways to form a culture. No culture is objectively better or worse, superior or inferior, to another. Cultures are adaptations of a people to the conditions of life. When these conditions change, cultures are put under pressure.
Culture and Society A culture can never be all things to all people. A culture can change, grow or die. If we compare a large number of cultures around the world, we will find that although each is different, they all meet the same five basic problems of social life. Each culture has developed its own answers to each problem. Those answers indicate values, behaviours, beliefs, conventions, etc. of the people in that culture.
Five Basic Problems of Society IdentityHierarchyGender TruthVirtue
Understanding Synthetic Cultures The model of synthetic cultures represents important cultural dimensions. They help people understand any new culture unfamiliar to them. They help people understand culture more systematically. Nevertheless, it is important to know that cultures are seldom identical. There are always exceptions!
Identity IndividualismCollectivism Identity represents the relationship between the individual and the group. It can be seen as a spectrum ranging from individual identity or Individualism to group identity, or Collectivism.
Traits of Collectivist Culture "We" not "me" orientation. Each person is encouraged to conform to society, to do what is best for the group and to not openly express opinions or beliefs that go against it. Group, family or rights for the common good are seen as more important than the rights of individuals. Rules promote stability, order and obedience. Fitting in or conforming to group or society is required. Distinctions made between in-group and out-group. Working with others and cooperating is the norm. Everyone often relies on others for support.
Doing Business in Collectivist Culture Relationships and connections are important. Trust and long-term cooperation is very possible. Saving ‘face’ for others, especially to seniors, is important. Using direct approach or confronting business partners directly is unwelcome. People tend to see their company as part of their ‘individual’ identity. That is, if one’s company is insulted, she feels herself was insulted, too. People can deal with complex relationships or multiple tasks at the same time.
Examples of Collectivist Culture Argentina Brazil Mexico Egypt Greece India Japan Taiwan Korea China Vietnam
Traits of Individualist Culture "I" identity. Promotes individual goals, initiative and achievement. Each person is encouraged to stand out, be unique and express themselves. Individual rights seen as most important. Rules attempt to ensure independence, choices and freedom of speech. Less distinction between in-group and out-group. Relying or being dependent on others is seen as shameful. People are encouraged to do things on their own, to rely on themselves.
Doing Business in Individualist Culture Relationships or connections are not essential to success. Cooperation depends on terms and conditions. Prefer clear and direct delivery of messages. People do not hesitate to speak for themselves. People care about their personal performances. Everyone’s job responsibilities tend to be clearly stated Prefer to deal with one single task after another.
Examples of Individualist Culture England France Ireland Italy United States Canada Australia New Zealand
Hierarchy Hierarchy indicates the degree of inequality between the people that is assumed to be a natural state of affairs. This attribute has been called Power Distance. The degree of power distance in different countries varies from small to large. The measurement is always relative; we compare one country with other countries. It also differs within a country. The power distance may become smaller as one climbs the social ladder.
Large Power Distance Small Power Distance In a society of large power distance, nobody thinks that people are all equal or should have the same rights. E.g. Parents are not children, leaders are not followers, and kings are not citizens In a society of small power distance, people tend to believe that they all have equal opportunities, status and rights. People see each another as peers rather than superiors-subordinates. Large VS Small Power Distance
Large Power Distance Culture Small Power Distance Culture Inequalities are expected and accepted in the society as well as in a company Centralization is common The ideal boss is decisive Privileges for managers in a company are expected People want to minimize inequality Decentralization is common Subordinates expect to be consulted The ideal boss is a democrat People disapprove of status Traits
Examples Large Power Distance Italy Germany France Netherlands United States Denmark Finland Sweden Small Power Distance
Dimension III: Gender (To Be Continued) IdentityHierarchyGender TruthVirtue
Checkpoint Do you know the basic concepts and definition of ‘culture’? What are the five basic problems of society? Do you know the meaning of ‘Identity’ and ‘hierarchy’? What are the two extremes of Identity? What do they suggest? What are the two extremes of Hierarchy? What do they suggest? Can you demonstrate the meaning of Identity and Hierarchy with examples?
SECTION B OF SYNTHETIC CULTURES SHALL BE FOLLOWED. The End