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The Nature of Groups Ch. 8.

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Presentation on theme: "The Nature of Groups Ch. 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nature of Groups Ch. 8

2 What is a group? “a small collection of people who interact with each other, usually face to face, over time in order to reach goals.”

3 In order to be considered a group, members must:
Interact Be interdependent -members rely on one another Interact for a length of time Be a particular size (at the very least three members) Have hopes of achieving one or more goals

4 Types of Goals Individual Goals - the motives of each individual group member Group goals – the ultimate outcome the group hopes to accomplish

5 4 Types of Groups Learning groups Growth groups Problem-solving groups
Social groups

6 Learning groups where the purpose is to increase the knowledge and skill of each member

7 Growth groups focus on teaching members more about themselves

8 Problem-solving groups
when members form in order to solve a problem that affects all of them

9 Social Groups Groups that meet for the sole purpose of satisfying the social needs of their members

All groups have certain characteristics in common. Rules and norms Member have individual Roles Patterns of interaction Decision-making methods

11 Rules and Norms Rules- clearly defined guidelines governing the ways in which members are expected to behave Norms- are rules that are not stated or discussed, but members know they are supposed to be followed

12 3 types of norms Social norms – effect the relationships that occur between members Procedural norms – outline the ways in which the group is to operate Task norms – how the job at hand will be carried out

13 Roles The behavior that is expected from each group member

14 Types of roles Formal roles – assigned by an organization
or group often to establish order Informal roles – roles that work to satisfy a particular function

15 Two types of informal roles:
Task roles – help the group accomplish its goals Maintenance roles- help the relationships among members run smoothly.

16 Dysfunctional roles behaviors that prevent the group from working effectively

17 Patterns of interaction
Interactions that take place within a group tend to follow a particular pattern. Types of patterns of interaction: All-channel network Chain network Wheel network

18 All- channel network Takes place if group members stay together and shared every piece of information with one another. Group members must be face-to-face

19 A chain network When interaction and communication moves sequentially from one member to another Good for simple messages Tend to break down with more complex messages

20 Wheel network All communication within the group goes through one person who is at the center of the groups operation.

21 Decision-Making Methods
5 ways in which groups make decisions: Consensus Majority control Expert opinion Minority rule Authority rule

22 CONSENSUS Takes place when every member of the group supports the decision

23 MAJORITY CONTROL Decisions are based on what the majority of members desire

24 EXPERT OPINION When decisions are left to one member who is believed to be an expert on the decision to be made Works if the person is truly an expert

25 MINORITY CONTROL Takes place when a few members of a group decide on a matter

26 AUTHORITY RULE When the leader or the person with the most power makes the decisions for the group


28 Cultural influences on group communication
Groups are effected greatly by culture Culture provides the rules and norms that determine how members will interact with one another Culture also determines how members will achieve the goals of the group

29 Geert Hofstede’s (4) cultural forces that shape the attitudes and behaviors of groups and individuals Individualism vs. Collectivism Power distance Uncertainty avoidance Task versus social orientation

30 (1) Individualism vs. collectivism
Describes the way that some cultures place value on the individual, while cultures place value on the group

31 Individualism Individualistic values stress the importance of pursuing personal goals and independence Individualistic cultures are focused on individual goals Those with individualistic orientation are concerned with standing out in the crowd

32 Collectivism Collectivistic values focus on the importance of group harmony, fitting in, and relational dependence Collectivistic cultures are focused on the goals in the group Those with collectivistic orientation are concerned with fitting in with the rest of the group

33 Individualistic vs. Collectivistic countries
The United States, Canada, Australia, and Britain. Latin American and Asian societies tend to be more collectivistic

34 Cultural influence on view of conflict
Individualistic cultures view conflict as a positive, and tend confront it head on -use more direct language (low-context) Collectivistic cultures tend to view conflict negatively, and avoid it -use less direct language (high-context)

35 (4) Power distance The accepted distance of power between to people of status and power within a culture

36 Low Power Distance If people are relatively equal there will be low power distance Cultures low in power distance tend to push toward equality among members

37 High Power Distance If people differ greatly in level of power there will be a high power distance Cultures high in power distance accept differences in power and status as a way of life

38 Countries with Low Power Distance
Israel New Zealand Germany U.S.A

39 Countries with High Power Distance
Philippines Mexico India France

40 (3) Uncertainty Avoidance
Takes place when people try to avoid that which is uncertain Different cultures react differently to uncertainty: -some cultures avoid uncertainty as much as possible -other cultures welcome uncertainty

41 Countries with low uncertainty avoidance
Singapore India Philippines U.S.A

42 Countries with high uncertainty avoidance
Greece Japan Peru Mexico

43 (4)Task vs. Social Orientation
Some cultures are focused more on getting the job done, while other cultures are focused more on the social orientation of the group

44 Task Oriented Societies
Focus is on getting the job done Focus on making the team more competent Highly concerned with individual success

45 Socially Oriented Societies
Focus more on collective concerns of the group Cooperative problem solving A friendly environment Good working conditions

46 Countries High in Task Orientation:
Japan Austria Italy Mexico

47 Counties High in Social Orientation
Sweden Norway Chile Portugal

48 In conclusion… An awareness of the ways in which different cultures deal with conflict and problem solving helps to eliminate miscommunication and misconceptions that may take place within groups.

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