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The Nature of Groups Ch. 8. What is a group? “a small collection of people who interact with each other, usually face to face, over time in order to reach.

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Presentation on theme: "The Nature of Groups Ch. 8. What is a group? “a small collection of people who interact with each other, usually face to face, over time in order to reach."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nature of Groups Ch. 8

2 What is a group? “a small collection of people who interact with each other, usually face to face, over time in order to reach goals.” “a small collection of people who interact with each other, usually face to face, over time in order to reach goals.”

3 In order to be considered a group, members must: Interact Interact Be interdependent -members rely on one another Be interdependent -members rely on one another Interact for a length of time Interact for a length of time Be a particular size (at the very least three members) Be a particular size (at the very least three members) Have hopes of achieving one or more goals Have hopes of achieving one or more goals

4 Types of Goals Individual Goals - the motives of each individual group member Individual Goals - the motives of each individual group member Group goals – the ultimate outcome the group hopes to accomplish Group goals – the ultimate outcome the group hopes to accomplish

5 4 Types of Groups Learning groups Learning groups Growth groups Growth groups Problem-solving groups Problem-solving groups Social groups Social groups

6 Learning groups where the purpose is to increase the knowledge and skill of each member where the purpose is to increase the knowledge and skill of each member

7 Growth groups focus on teaching members more about themselves focus on teaching members more about themselves

8 Problem-solving groups when members form in order to solve a problem that affects all of them when members form in order to solve a problem that affects all of them

9 Social Groups Groups that meet for the sole purpose of satisfying the social needs of their members Groups that meet for the sole purpose of satisfying the social needs of their members

10 CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUPS All groups have certain characteristics in common. All groups have certain characteristics in common. Rules and norms Rules and norms Member have individual Roles Member have individual Roles Patterns of interaction Patterns of interaction Decision-making methods Decision-making methods

11 Rules and Norms Rules- clearly defined guidelines governing the ways in which members are expected to behave Rules- clearly defined guidelines governing the ways in which members are expected to behave Norms- are rules that are not stated or discussed, but members know they are supposed to be followed Norms- are rules that are not stated or discussed, but members know they are supposed to be followed

12 3 types of norms Social norms – effect the relationships that occur between members Social norms – effect the relationships that occur between members Procedural norms – outline the ways in which the group is to operate Procedural norms – outline the ways in which the group is to operate Task norms – how the job at hand will be carried out Task norms – how the job at hand will be carried out

13 Roles The behavior that is expected from each group member The behavior that is expected from each group member

14 Types of roles Formal roles – assigned by an organization or group often to establish order or group often to establish order Informal roles – roles that work to satisfy a particular function

15 Two types of informal roles: Task roles – help the group accomplish its goals Task roles – help the group accomplish its goals Maintenance roles- help the relationships among members run smoothly. Maintenance roles- help the relationships among members run smoothly.

16 Dysfunctional roles behaviors that prevent the group from working effectively behaviors that prevent the group from working effectively

17 Patterns of interaction Interactions that take place within a group tend to follow a particular pattern. Interactions that take place within a group tend to follow a particular pattern. Types of patterns of interaction: All-channel network All-channel network Chain network Chain network Wheel network Wheel network

18 All- channel network Takes place if group members stay together and shared every piece of information with one another. Takes place if group members stay together and shared every piece of information with one another. Group members must be face-to-face Group members must be face-to-face

19 A chain network When interaction and communication moves sequentially from one member to another When interaction and communication moves sequentially from one member to another Good for simple messages Good for simple messages Tend to break down with more complex messages Tend to break down with more complex messages

20 Wheel network All communication within the group goes through one person who is at the center of the groups operation. All communication within the group goes through one person who is at the center of the groups operation.

21 Decision-Making Methods 5 ways in which groups make decisions: 5 ways in which groups make decisions: 1. Consensus 2. Majority control 3. Expert opinion 4. Minority rule 5. Authority rule

22 CONSENSUS Takes place when every member of the group supports the decision Takes place when every member of the group supports the decision

23 MAJORITY CONTROL Decisions are based on what the majority of members desire Decisions are based on what the majority of members desire

24 EXPERT OPINION When decisions are left to one member who is believed to be an expert on the decision to be made When decisions are left to one member who is believed to be an expert on the decision to be made Works if the person is truly an expert Works if the person is truly an expert

25 MINORITY CONTROL Takes place when a few members of a group decide on a matter Takes place when a few members of a group decide on a matter

26 AUTHORITY RULE When the leader or the person with the most power makes the decisions for the group When the leader or the person with the most power makes the decisions for the group

27 THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON GROUPS

28 Cultural influences on group communication  Groups are effected greatly by culture  Culture provides the rules and norms that determine how members will interact with one another  Culture also determines how members will achieve the goals of the group

29 Geert Hofstede’s (4) cultural forces that shape the attitudes and behaviors of groups and individuals Individualism vs. Collectivism Individualism vs. Collectivism Power distance Power distance Uncertainty avoidance Uncertainty avoidance Task versus social orientation Task versus social orientation

30 (1) Individualism vs. collectivism Describes the way that some cultures place value on the individual, while cultures place value on the group Describes the way that some cultures place value on the individual, while cultures place value on the group

31 Individualism Individualistic values stress the importance of pursuing personal goals and independence Individualistic values stress the importance of pursuing personal goals and independence Individualistic cultures are focused on individual goals Individualistic cultures are focused on individual goals Those with individualistic orientation are concerned with standing out in the crowd Those with individualistic orientation are concerned with standing out in the crowd

32 Collectivism Collectivistic values focus on the importance of group harmony, fitting in, and relational dependence Collectivistic values focus on the importance of group harmony, fitting in, and relational dependence Collectivistic cultures are focused on the goals in the group Collectivistic cultures are focused on the goals in the group Those with collectivistic orientation are concerned with fitting in with the rest of the group Those with collectivistic orientation are concerned with fitting in with the rest of the group

33 Individualistic vs. Collectivistic countries The United States, Canada, Australia, and Britain. The United States, Canada, Australia, and Britain. Latin American and Asian societies tend to be more collectivistic Latin American and Asian societies tend to be more collectivistic

34 Cultural influence on view of conflict Individualistic cultures view conflict as a positive, and tend confront it head on Individualistic cultures view conflict as a positive, and tend confront it head on -use more direct language (low-context) Collectivistic cultures tend to view conflict negatively, and avoid it Collectivistic cultures tend to view conflict negatively, and avoid it -use less direct language (high-context)

35 (4) Power distance The accepted distance of power between to people of status and power within a culture The accepted distance of power between to people of status and power within a culture

36 Low Power Distance If people are relatively equal there will be low power distance If people are relatively equal there will be low power distance Cultures low in power distance tend to push toward equality among members Cultures low in power distance tend to push toward equality among members

37 High Power Distance  If people differ greatly in level of power there will be a high power distance  Cultures high in power distance accept differences in power and status as a way of life

38 Countries with Low Power Distance Israel New Zealand GermanyU.S.A

39 Countries with High Power Distance Philippines Philippines Mexico Mexico India India France France

40 (3) Uncertainty Avoidance Takes place when people try to avoid that which is uncertain Takes place when people try to avoid that which is uncertain Different cultures react differently to uncertainty: Different cultures react differently to uncertainty: -some cultures avoid uncertainty as much as possible -some cultures avoid uncertainty as much as possible -other cultures welcome uncertainty -other cultures welcome uncertainty

41 Countries with low uncertainty avoidance Singapore Singapore India India Philippines Philippines U.S.A U.S.A

42 Countries with high uncertainty avoidance Greece Greece Japan Japan Peru Peru Mexico Mexico

43 (4)Task vs. Social Orientation Some cultures are focused more on getting the job done, while other cultures are focused more on the social orientation of the group Some cultures are focused more on getting the job done, while other cultures are focused more on the social orientation of the group

44 Task Oriented Societies Focus is on getting the job done Focus is on getting the job done Focus on making the team more competent Focus on making the team more competent Highly concerned with individual success Highly concerned with individual success

45 Socially Oriented Societies Focus more on collective concerns of the group Focus more on collective concerns of the group Cooperative problem solving Cooperative problem solving A friendly environment A friendly environment Good working conditions Good working conditions

46 Countries High in Task Orientation: Japan Japan Austria Austria Italy Italy Mexico Mexico

47 Counties High in Social Orientation Sweden Sweden Norway Norway Chile Chile Portugal Portugal

48 In conclusion… An awareness of the ways in which different cultures deal with conflict and problem solving helps to eliminate miscommunication and misconceptions that may take place within groups. An awareness of the ways in which different cultures deal with conflict and problem solving helps to eliminate miscommunication and misconceptions that may take place within groups.


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