Five Dimensions to Understand and Learn about Cultures
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Presentation on theme: "Five Dimensions to Understand and Learn about Cultures"— Presentation transcript:
1 Five Dimensions to Understand and Learn about Cultures HofstedeFive Dimensions to Understand and Learn about Cultures
2 Five Dimensions Power Distance Individualism and Collectivism Uncertainty AvoidanceCareer Success and Quality of life (Masculinity and Femininity)Confucian Dynamism
3 POWER DISTANCE (The degree to which power differentials within society and organizations are accepted.)
4 Large Power Distance societies are characterized by: centralized authority autocratic leadership paternalistic management style many hierarchical levels acceptance that power has its privileges an expectation of inequality and power differences
5 Small Power Distance societies are characterized by: decentralized authority and decision makingresponsibility consultative or participative managementstyle flat organizational structures lack of acceptance and questioning ofauthority rights consciousness tendency toward egalitarianism
7 INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURES foster contractual relationships that are based on the principlesof exchange. They calculate profit and loss before engaging in a behavior. focus on self or at most on close loved ones, are concerned with therelationship between their behaviors and their own needs, interests & goals. value independence & self-sufficiency and place self interests abovecollective interests; accept confrontation as an attribute emphasize pleasure, fun & personal enjoyment more than social normsand duties; belong to many in-groups that exert little influence on their lives believe that their beliefs are unique give precedence to horizontal relationships (e.g. spouse-spouse) oververtical relationships (e.g. parent-child)
8 COLLECTIVISTIC CULTURES behave according to social norms that are designedto maintain social harmony and hierarchy among members of anin-group consider implications of their actions for widercollective share resources and are prepared to sacrificepersonal interest for collective interests favor certain in-groups (e.g. family, friends) and are indifferent or hostile toward out-group members.
9 UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE (The degree to which members of a society are able to cope with the uncertainty of the future (and present) without experiencing undue stress
10 Weak UA cultures are characterized by: risk taking tolerance of differing behaviors and opinions flexibility organizations with a relatively low degree of structure and few rules, promotions based on merit
11 Strong UA cultures are characterized by: avoidance of risk organizations that have clearly delineated structures, and many rules and standardized procedures; promotions are based on primarily on seniority or age lack of tolerance for deviants strong need for consensus need for predictability; hence, planning is important respect for authority
12 CAREER SUCCESS AND QUALITY OF LIFE OR Masculinity AND Femininity
13 CAREER SUCCESS (Masculine) CULTURES 1. Gender roles are clearly distinct2. Being assertive, tough and focused on material success are what is valued3. Benevolence is subordinated to competition and survival of the fittest values.4. Mastery of job and related elements is more important than relationship development.
14 QUALITY OF LIFE (Feminine) CULTURES 1. Social gender roles overlap2. Both men and women are supposed tobe modest, tender and concerned withthe quality of life3. Being kind, cooperative are more importantthan winning.4. Emphasis on nonmaterial aspects of success
15 Confucian DynamismThe stability of society is based on unequal relationships between people.The family is the prototype of all social organizations.The “golden rule” must prevail.Virtuous behavior also includes acquiring education, working hard, being thrifty, patient and persevering.
16 High Confucianism: Cultures that are Dynamic, future-orientedPersevering, persistentRelationships are ordered based on statusThriftySense of shameInterdependence, interrelatednessHard working
17 Low Confucianism: Cultures that are Oriented toward the pastStatic, tradition-orientedReciprocation of greetings, favors, giftsNonprogressive economicallyPersonal steadiness