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Hofstede Cultural Framework

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Presentation on theme: "Hofstede Cultural Framework"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hofstede Cultural Framework
Power Distance Individualism vs. Collectivism Masculinity vs. Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Long Term Orientation

2 Power Distance “...the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.”


4 Power Distance at Work Hierarchy Centralization Salary range
Participation Ideal Boss Privilege & status symbols

5 Individualism vs. Collectivism
Individualist societies: ties are loose and everyone looks out for himself or herself Collectivist societies: people integrated into strong, cohesive groups; protection is exchanged for loyalty


7 Individualism / Collectivism at Work
Employee-employer relationship Hiring and promotion decisions Managerial focus Task vs. relationship priority

8 Masculinity vs. Femininity
Masculine societies: social gender roles are distinct (men focus on material success; women on quality of life) Feminine societies: social gender roles overlap (both quality of life)


10 Masculinity / Femininity at Work
Centrality of work Ways of managing & decision making Fem: equality, solidarity, quality of work life Mas: equity, compete, performance Conflict resolution

11 Uncertainty Avoidance
“…the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations.” NOT the same as risk avoidance Presence of rules


13 Uncertainty Avoidance at Work
Necessity of rules Time orientation Precision & punctuality Interpretation of “What is different…” Appropriateness of emotional displays

14 Long term orientation Confucian Dynamism
The ‘newest’ dimension three universal dimensions and two fourth dimensions Truth vs. Virtue: What one believes vs. What one does


16 Confucian Dynamism Short-term orientation
Social pressure to ‘keep up with the Joneses’ small savings expect quick results concern with possessing Truth Long-term orientation Thrift: being sparing with resources large savings perseverance toward slow results concern with respecting the demands of Virtue


18 Idiosyncrasies of North American Management Theory
Stress on Market Processes Stress on the Individual Stress on Managers rather than Workers

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