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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 THE MEANINGS AND DIMENSIONS OF CULTURE."— Presentation transcript:


2 Nature of Culture Learned Shared Transgenerational Symbolic Patterned
Culture is acquired by learning and experience Shared People as a member of a group, organization ,or society share culture Transgenerational Culture is cumulative, passed down from generation to generation Symbolic Culture is based on the human capacity to symbolize Patterned Culture has structure and is integrated Adaptive Culture is based on the human capacity to change or adapt

3 How Cultures Affect Management Approaches
Centralized Decision Making Risk Averse Individual Rewards Informal Procedures High Organizational Loyalty Co-operation Encouraged Decentralized Decision Making Risk Seeking Group Rewards Low Organizational Loyalty Competition Encouraged

4 Value Priorities United States Japan Arab Countries
1. Freedom Belonging Family Security 2. Independence Group Harmony Family Harmony 3. Self-Reliance Collectiveness Parternalism 4. Equality Age/Seniority 4. Age 5. Individualism Group Consensus Authority 6. Competition Cooperation Compromise 7. Efficiency Quality Devotion 8. Time Patience Patience 9. Directness Indirectness Indirectness 10. Openness Go-between 10. Hospitality Values- basic convictions that people have regarding what is right and wrong, good and bad, important or unimportant

5 Value Differences and Similarities Across Cultures
U.S. managers value tactful acquisition of influence Japanese managers value deference to superiors Korean managers value forcefulness and aggressiveness Indian managers value nonaggressive pursuit of objectives Australian managers value low-key approach with high concern for others Similarities Strong relationship between managerial success and personal values Value patterns predict managerial success Successful managers favor pragmatic, achievement-oriented values while less successful managers prefer static and passive values

6 Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture
Power Distance (Large or Small) The extent to which less powerful members of institutions accept that power is distributed unequally Large (Mexico, South Korea, India) blindly obey order of superiors hierarchical organizational structure Small (U.S., Denmark, Canada) decentralized decision making flat organizational structures

7 Uncertainty Avoidance (High or Low)
The extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations High( Germany, Japan, Spain) high need for security strong beliefs in experts Low (Denmark, UK) willing to accept risks less structuring of activities

8 Individualism (vs. Collectivism)
The tendency of people to look after themselves and their immediate family only strong work ethic promotions based on merit U.S., Canada, Australia Collectivism The tendency of people to belong to groups and to look after each other in exchange for loyalty weaker work ethic promotions based on seniority China, South American cultures

9 Masculinity (Vs. Femininity)
the dominant values in society are success, money and things emphasis on earning and recognition high stress workplace Japan Femininity the dominant values in society are caring for others and the quality of life employment security employee freedom Scandinavian cultures

10 Cultural Dimensions by Trompenaars
Universalism vs. Particularism Universalism: the belief that ideas and practices can be applied everywhere without modification U. S., Germany, and Sweden Particularism: the belief that circumstances dictate how ideas and practices should be applied. Spain and Japan

11 Individualism Vs. Collectivism
Individualism: refers to people regarding themselves as individuals U.S., UK, and Sweden Collectivism: refers to people regarding themselves as part of a group Japan and France

12 Neutral Vs. Affective Specific Vs. Diffuse
Neutral: emotions are held in check Japan and the U.S. Affective: emotions are openly and naturally expressed Mexico, Netherlands, and Switzerland Specific Vs. Diffuse Specific: individuals have a large public space and a small private space UK, U. S., and Switzerland Diffuse: both public and private space are similar in size Venezuela, China, and Spain

13 Achievement Vs. Ascription
Achievement: people are accorded status based on how well they perform their functions U.S., Switzerland, and UK Ascription: status is attributed based on who or what a person is Venezuela and China

14 Time Past or Present-Oriented Vs. Future-Oriented
Past or present-oriented : emphasize the history and tradition of the culture Venezuela, Indonesia, and Spain Future-oriented: emphasize the opportunities and limitless scope that any agreement can have U. S., Italy, and Germany

15 Sequential Vs. Synchronous Time
Sequential: time is prevalent, people tend to do only one activity at a time, keep appointments strictly, and prefer to follow plans U.S. Synchronous: time is prevalent, people tend to do more than one activity at a time, appointments are approximate, and schedules are not important Mexico and France

16 Environment Inner Directed Outer Directed
Believe in controlling outcomes U.S. Outer Directed Believe in letting things take their own course Asian Cultures


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