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Stages of Revolution Adapted from Crane Brinton’s book, The Anatomy of Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "Stages of Revolution Adapted from Crane Brinton’s book, The Anatomy of Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stages of Revolution Adapted from Crane Brinton’s book, The Anatomy of Revolution


3 Preliminary Stage

4 PRELIMINARY STAGE Class antagonism Economic upgrade, which does not reach the people Government inefficiency Inept ruler—Autocrat with absolute power People ask for change (justice) Autocrat attempts to stop early protests with force (terror), which fails Intellectuals transfer their loyalty from government to the people

5 Initial Stage

6 INITIAL STAGE Financial breakdown Protests against government increase dramatically Moderates gain power relatively peacefully Revolutionary underground (radicals) foment revolution Mob psychology Ignorant Emotional Now wants revenge

7 Crisis Stage

8 CRISIS STAGE Radicals take control Remove moderates Enemies attempt to stop radicals: Civil war Foreign war Centralization of power in revolutionary council Council dominated by a “strongman” Use common term of address Try to kill original autocrat Use terror to rule

9 Recovery

10 RECOVERY Revolution turns inward Radicals removed Some killed Charismatic autocrat comes to power Aggressive nationalism Slow, uneven return to quieter times People trade freedom for security

11 SecurityFreedom Security vs. Freedom

12 French Revolution

13 Preliminary Stage

14 Causes of the French Revolution

15 Class Antagonism First Estate: 100,000 Catholic clergy Did not pay taxes Second Estate: 400,000 nobles Exempt from many taxes Third Estate: Rest of population Sans-culottes Provided bulk of French tax revenue In 1780s, 50% of revenue went to pay off debts American War for Independence Lavish lifestyle of the monarchy

16 Government Inefficiency Need for tax reform Louis XVI hoped to raise taxes on ancien régime Aristocracy resisted reforms and pushed Louis to not make changes Forced Louis to call the Estates- General for the first time since 1614

17 People Ask for Change Cahiers de Doleances

18 Autocrat’s Failed Attempts to Stop Early Protests National Assembly locked out of meeting place

19 Intellectuals Transfer Their Loyalty Enlightenment ideals from the philosophes Popular sovereignty & natural rights (Locke) Political & legal equality (Rousseau) Personal freedoms (Voltaire) Global influence of Enlightenment values American War for Independence

20 Initial Stage (1789-1791)

21 Financial Breakdown Series of bad harvests 1787 & 1788 High bread prices

22 Protests against the Government Storming of the Bastille Women’s March on Versailles

23 Moderate Governments National Assembly 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Legislative Assembly 1789 -1792

24 Revolutionary Underground Jacobins

25 Crisis Stage (1792-1794)

26 Radicals Take Control Arrest of Louis XVI August 10, 1792 National Convention 1792 - 1795

27 Enemies of the Revolution Increase Civil war Louis XVI Nobles/Emigres Foreign war Austria England

28 Revolutionary Council and Strongman Jacobins Sans culottes Committee of Public Safety Robespierre Common term of address Citizen

29 Kill the Original Autocrat Louis guillotined January, 1793 (38) Marie guillotined October, 1793 (37)

30 Uses Terror to Rule “The first maxim of our politics ought to be to lead the people by means of reason and the enemies of the people by terror.” Reign of Terror Led by Robespierre According to records 16,000+ died under the guillotine Historians estimate could be as high as 40,000

31 British View of Reign of Terror

32 Recovery Stage (1794-1815)

33 Revolution Turns Inward Festival of the Supreme Being June 8, 1794 Thermidorean Reaction July, 1794

34 Charismatic Autocrat Directory 1794-1799 Napoleon 1799

35 Aggressive Nationalism Napoleonic Wars

36 Quieter Times Napoleon’s domestic policies Napoleonic Code Schools and universities Revised tax code

37 Trade Freedom for Security Empire 1804-1815

38 Stages of Revolution Adapted from Crane Brinton’s book, The Anatomy of Revolution

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