5 Financial Crisis 50% of revenue went to pay off debts Series of bad harvests 1787 & 1788Need for tax reformAmerican Revolution?Lavish lifestyle of the monarchyBread prices went up 50% in 1789Louis XVI hoped to raise taxes on ancien régimeAristocracy resisted reformsForced Louis to call the Estates-General for the first time since 1614
6 Estates General First Estate: Second Estate: Third Estate: Catholic clergySecond Estate:NoblesThird Estate:Serfs, peasants, urban workers1st Estate: 100,000-did not pay taxes2nd Estate: 400,000-exempt from many taxes3rd Estate: 97%-98% (24,000,000)provided bulk of French tax revenue
7 By Abbe Sieyes, a clergyman who became a revolutionary, 1789 “What is the Third Estate? All. But an ‘all’ that is fettered (chained) and oppressed. What would it be without the privileged order? It would be all; but free and flourishing. Nothing will go well without the Third Estate; everything would go considerably better without the other two.”To a smaller scale: Enlightenment thought and the American example
8 Discussion QuestionsWhat were the similarities between the long-term causes of the American and French Revolutions? Differences?
10 Calling of the Estates-General May 5, 1789First time since 1696Deadlock vote
11 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity The National AssemblyJune 20, 1789Liberty, Equality, FraternityThe third estate and some members of the firstTennis Court Oath: pledged to write a constitution that would value popular sovereignty
12 Storming of the Bastille Only 7 prisoners locked upFrench citizens fearing King Louis XVI would use violence to put down the revolution stormed the Bastille on 14 July 1789
13 Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen Passed August 26, 1789Not a ConstitutionA statement of general principals-Defines individual and collective rights-Does not address women or slavery-like the declaration of independence
14 Women’s MarchStorming of VersaillesOctober 1, 1789
15 The Constitution of 1791 Limited monarchy and representative assembly Consent of the governedChurch under state controlDeclared the people had natural rights and that it was the job of the government to protect these rights
17 Radicals Take ControlArrest of Louis XVIAugust 10, 1792
18 Execution of Louis XVI January 21, 1793 Louis tries to escape and it leads to his execution along with his wife’s
19 Radical Reforms of the Jacobins “National Convention” All men can voteAbolished slaveryUniversal military conscriptionSpirit of nationalismSet price controls & seized crops from farmers
20 Reign of Terror Led by Maximilien Robespierre 16,000+ died under the guillotinethe Incorruptible,” leader of “Committee of Public SafetyHistorians estimate could be as high as 40,000“The first maxim of our politics ought to be to lead the people by means of reason and the enemies of the people by terror.”
21 British View of Reign of Terror Perspective of the counter-revolutionaries: "The Radical's Arms", it depicts the infamous guillotine. "No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution!" is written in the republican banner.
22 End of the TerrorJuly 28, 1794National Convention voted for the arrest and death of Robespierre
23 Discussion QuestionHow were the actions of American radicals and French radicals similar? How were they different?
25 Napoleon Bonaparte The Directory: Failed to solve economic problems of FranceNapoleon staged a coup d’etat in 1799Becomes emperor in 1804Ruled for 4 years following the reign of terrorPopular authoritarianism
26 Domestic Policies of Napoleon Greater internal stability and protection of propertyFreedom of ReligionDenied rights of womenRestricted speech and expressionProperty and political
27 Napoleon’s Empire Left: Napoleon’s Empire by 1912 Above: Napoleon’s Retreat from Russia
28 Napoleon on Elba This should NOT be a prison Weakened by invasion of Russia, could not hold off Russia, Austria, Prussia, and EnglandAbdicated in 1814Escaped
29 Battle of WaterlooTried to regain control, but couldn’
30 Discussion QuestionAt what point in time were the French closest to achieving their original goals of the revolution?
31 Legacy of the French Revolution Global Independence movementsHaitian RevolutionLatin American independenceTriggered by Napoleon’s invasion of SpainEgypt broke away from Ottoman EmpireSlave Trade and SlaveryEngland abolished slave trade in 1807; slavery in 1833Brazil—Last to abolish slavery (1888)Abolition of serfdomExcept in Russia
32 Legacy of the French Revolution Women’s RightsPlayed major role in the revolutionsSewing uniforms, nurses, running businesses, some even foughtLost many rights after revolutionNapoleonFeminist MovementsMary WollstonecraftSpread of nationalism in EuropeGerman and Italian unificationGreek independence