3 Causes of the Revolution Poor Leadership Louis XVIA Divided Societyinfluence of the American Revolutioninfluence of Enlightenment ideasPolitical & Legal Equality (Rousseau)Personal Freedoms (Voltaire)Popular Sovereignty & Natural Rights (Locke)
5 Q. What can you infer from the pie graphs on why a revolution occurred in France?
6 A Divided Society First Estate: 100,000 Catholic clergy Did not pay taxesSecond Estate: 400,000 noblesExempt from many taxesThird Estate: Rest of Populationmade up of peasants, commoners, & Sans-culottes – working classProvided bulk of French tax revenue
7 Political inequalities for Middle Class First Estate Second Estate Third EstateX X X XX X X XX X X X1 Vote1 VoteX= Representative1 Vote
8 Financial Crisis During 1780s, 50% of revenue went to pay off debts American Revolution?Lavish lifestyle of the monarchySeries of bad harvests 1787 & 1788Bread prices went up 50% in 1789Need for tax reformLouis XVI hoped to raise taxes on the aristocracyAristocracy resisted reformsForced Louis to call the Estates-General for the first time since 1614start movie at 20:00 end 23
9 Phase I Moderate/liberal Goal- create constitutional monarchy
11 Debriefing: Meeting of the Estates General Describe what happened at the Estates General.How does it feel to be a member of the 3rd estate?Do you agree with the results of the Estates General?What options do the members of the 3rd estate have to change their status?How many people of the 3rd estate would now vote to meet apart from the 1st and 2nd estate and be the true representatives of the people of France?Who else might support members of the 3rd Estate who want to start a new government?
12 The National Assembly and Tennis Court Oath Third Estate removed themselves and created their own assemblya. renamed themselves the National Assembly and met at a nearby indoor tennis courtb. Tennis Court Oath – promised not to disband until they had written a constitution for France
13 The National Assembly and Tennis Court Oath June 20, 1789Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
14 Storming of the Bastille- - July 1789: people were hungry and desperate.a rumor spread that the king’s troops were coming to sack Paris.- hundreds of people marched to the Bastille (a medieval fort and prison) to get gunpowder- soldiers fired on the crowd, killing many people.- Importance = Symbolized the start of the revolution- France enters “Great Fear” – general revolts against Old Feudal Regime.
15 Women’s March October 1789: Storming of VersaillesOctober 1, 1789October 1789:thousands of women marched to Versailles and demanded the King and Queen come to Paris and leave VersaillesTheir exit signaled the change of power and the radical reforms about the overtake France
16 Creation of a “The Declaration of the Rights of Man” nobles in the First and Second Estates joined the National Assemblyscared of the violent commonersvoted to end their own privilegesNational Assembly adopted a statement of revolutionary ideas“A declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen”
17 Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen Passed by the National Assembly on August 26, 1789Not a Constitution but a statement of general principlesDefines individual and collective rightsDoes not address women or slavery
18 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Marquis de Lafayette The Declaration of the Rights of Man and CitizenJune 20, 1789Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
19 Phase II (1792-1794) Radical Goal- a republic; eliminate monarchists and counterrevolutionaries
20 Radicals Take ControlArrest of Louis XVIAugust 10, 1792June 1791 Louis and is Family try to escape FranceThey are recognized near the border and brought back to ParisSeptember 1791 National assembly creates a constitutional monarchyStripping the king of most of his authorityFrances assemblymen would have the power to make lawsLouis reluctantly approves itHands over his power to the Legislative Assembly
21 neighboring countries began to worry about their own monarchies French émigrés (nobles who fled from France) tried to convince other countries to restore Louis XVIFrench revolutionary leaders declared war on Austria, then Prussiaradicals imprisoned Louis XVI,
22 Radical Reforms of the Jacobins Jacobins was a radical political clubLed by Jean Paul MaratGoal: remove the king and establish aRepublicNational Convention Septemberabolishes the monarchy and creates arepublicMen were given the right to vote, notwomenLouis XVI’s role went from King to common citizenHe was sentence to death for treason and was sent tothe guillotine
25 Reign of Terror Led by Maximilien Robespierre Goal was to build a “public of virtue”1793 became leader of the Committee of Public SafetyHe decided who was an enemy of the republicAccording to records 16,000+ died under the guillotineHistorians estimate could be as high as 40,000
30 Napoleon BonaparteModerate government, the Directory, rules for five years following Reign of TerrorFailed to solve economic problems of FranceNapoleon staged a coup d'état in 1799Becomes emperor in 1804
31 Domestic Policies of Napoleon Maintained some rights gained during the revolutionFreedom of religionNapoleonic Code (Civil Code)Schools and universitiesReversed other gainsRights of womenFreedom of expressionReformed economyRevised tax codeCentral bank
38 Napoleon’s Downfall Could not conquer British navy Guerilla movements in Spain and PortugalFailed invasion of RussiaFinal defeat at Waterloo
39 Legacy of NapoleonUnsuccessful attempt to unify Europe under French domination.Napoleonic Code – great influence on modern European legal codesSpread of nationalism in EuropeGerman and Italian unificationGreek independence
40 Legacy of the French Revolution Global Independence movementsHaitian RevolutionLatin American independenceTriggered by Napoleon’s invasion of SpainEgypt broke away from Ottoman EmpireSlave Trade and SlaveryEngland abolished slave trade in 1807; slavery in 1833Brazil—Last to abolish slavery (1888)Abolition of serfdomExcept in Russia