1 st / 2 nd Estate(Church/Nobles)- no taxes 3 rd Estate (Peasants/Bourgeoisie)- all the taxes Ancien Regime
King Louis XVI –Burden of Debt –Poor Harvest –Failure to Reform Bankers forced Louis to hire Jacque Necker Then Louis fires him
Promised new ConstitutionPromised new Constitution King Louis XVI
Promised new Constitution Estates GeneralLouis call the Estates General –Called for political purposes –Nothing changes… King Louis XVI
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY is formed by the third estate King Louis XVI
Tennis Court Oath Third Estate – swears to ‘Never Separate’ National Assembly Louis Locks the doors and puts guards in front of Door on National Assembly
Storming of the Bastille Rumors of Military supplies in Prison walls “is it a revolt?” “No, Sir. It is a Revolution.” French National Day July 14, 1790 French Independence Day
Marquis de Lafayette Heads the National Guard Red, White, and Blue Badge French Revolution
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen John Locke’s “Natural Rights” Born free and equal in rights Every Frenchman has right to hold office… “…with no distinction other than that of their virtues and talents.” Natural Rights: –Liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression Freedom of Religion Taxes based on …”ability to pay.” “Woman is born free…” Constitutional Monarchy
Today in the U.S. Today in the U.S. the power and danger of Propaganda and misinformation Who pays the most taxes? The Rich? Middle Class? Poor?
What income group pays the most federal income taxes today? Treasury Department The top 1 percent of the population earn 19 + percent of the income pays 37 percent of the income tax. The top 10 percent pays 68 + percent of the nation’s income tax the bottom 50 percent pay just 3 percent of the taxes. + does not include Social Security taxes
Queen Marie Antoinette Queen Marie Antoinette lives a very lavish life style Misinformation: “Let them eat Cake”
Women March on Versailles Women March on Versailles families are hungry and they want food (mini-ice age) King and family taken back to Paris
King of Prussia Emperor of Austria (MARIE ANTOINETTE’S BROTHER) Declaration of PilnitzDeclaration of Pilnitz –“If you touch the Queen…”
Louis, Marie, and family try to escape to Austria Recognized and captured Louis seen as a “Traitor” to the Revolution
Monarchy is Abolished ! Frenchmen, I die innocent. I pardon the authors of my death.” France Declares “War on Tyranny”
Jacobins Jacobins very violent piece of Revolution The Jacobin Club implemented the Reign of Terror To this day, the terms Jacobin and Jacobinism are used as pejoratives for radical, left-wing revolutionary politics Sans-Culottes wanted popular democracy, social and economic equality, affordable food, rejection of the free-market economy, and violence against counter-revolutionaries.
Committee of Public Safety Maximilien Robespierre Participated in writing the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen – the foundation of the French constitution. Argued for the execution of the king and continued to encourage the crowds to rise up against the aristocracy Outlawed the Christian Church in France The Cult of the Supreme Being was a form of deism It was intended to become the state religion of the new French Republic.
Committee of Public Safety Maximilien Robespierre REIGN OF TERROR “Liberty cannot be secured, unless criminals lose their heads”
Committee of Public Safety Maximilien Robespierre REIGN OF TERROR “Liberty cannot be secured, unless criminals lose their heads” Crush All opposition to the Revolution 40,000 die in one year
Out of fear, committee turns on Robespierre Maximilien Robespierre
In 1799, a military coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the Directory and established him as first consul, with dictatorial powers. In 1804, Napoleon proclaimed himself emperor of France. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8K1CzqG-jrI