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Congress Middle School Pre-Medical Magnet Program 2008 Presented by: Diana Herec, Medical Magnet Coordinator.

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Presentation on theme: "Congress Middle School Pre-Medical Magnet Program 2008 Presented by: Diana Herec, Medical Magnet Coordinator."— Presentation transcript:

1 Congress Middle School Pre-Medical Magnet Program 2008 Presented by: Diana Herec, Medical Magnet Coordinator

2 Human A & P Anatomy and Physiology

3 The Cranium The skull forms the skeleton of the head, and consists of the following: The cranium The mandible The hyoid bone at the base of the tongue

4 The Following Anterior View Shows: #1: Parietal bone #3: Temporal bone #6: Mental foramen #7: Mandible #10: Maxilla #11: Zygomatic bone #13: Frontal bone

5 Anterior View of Cranium #1: Parietal #3: Temporal #6: Mental Foramen #7: Mandible #10: Maxilla #11: Zygomatic #13: Frontal

6 Lets See, that was: #1: Parietal bone #3: Temporal bone #6: Mental foramen #7: Mandible #10: Maxilla #11: Zygomatic bone #13: Frontal bone

7 Now You Try! #s 1, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13 #1: Parietal #3: Temporal #6: Mental foramen #7: Mandible #10: Maxilla #11: Zygomatic #13: Frontal

8 The Neurocranium The neurocranium surrounds and protects the brain and part of the brain stem

9 The Lower Skull The facial cranium is the lower part of the skull that underlies the face 14 bones make up the facial cranium You will not need to know all 14 for this class

10 The Following Posterior View Shows: #1: Sagittal suture #3: Temporal bone #4: Lambdoid suture #5: Mastoid process #6: Mandible #8: Occipital bone #9: Parietal bone

11 Cranium – Posterior #1: Sagittal suture #3: Temporal bone #4: Lambdoid suture #5: Mastoid process #6: Mandible #8: Occipital bone #9: Parietal bone

12 Lets See, that was the: #1: Sagittal suture #3: Temporal bone #4: Lambdoid suture #5: Mastoid process #6: Mandible #8: Occipital bone #9: Parietal bone

13 Now You Try! #s 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 #1: Sagittal suture #3: Temporal bone #4: Lambdoid suture #5: Mastoid process #6: Mandible #8: Occipital bone #9: Parietal bone

14 The Following Lateral View Shows: #2: Parietal bone #3: Lambdoid suture #4: Occipital bone #8: Mandible #9: Maxilla #11: Nasal bone #14: Frontal bone #15: Coronal Suture

15 Cranium – Lateral View #1: Parietal bone #2: Lambdoid suture #3: Occipital bone #4: Mastoid process #5: Mandible #6: Mental foramen #8: Maxilla #11: Zygomatic #12: Nasal bone #17: Frontal bone #18: Coronal suture

16 Lets See, that was: #1: Parietal bone #2: Lambdoid suture #3: Occipital bone #4: Mastoid process #5: Mandible #6: Mental foramen #8: Maxilla #11: Zygomatic #12: Nasal bone #17: Frontal bone #18: Coronal suture

17 Now You Try! #s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 12, 17, 18 #1: Parietal bone #2: Lambdoid suture #3: Occipital bone #4: Mastoid process #5: Mandible #6: Mental foramen #8: Maxilla #11: Zygomatic #12: Nasal bone #17: Frontal bone #18: Coronal suture

18 Articulations The four major bones of the neurocranium: 1.Occipital 2.Parietal 3.Temporal 4.Frontal These bones join at sutures, which are bound together by fibrous connective tissue

19 Articulations The base of the skull articulates with the atlas (C1), the first cervical vertebra of the vertebral column The mandible articulates with the two temporal bones on each side at the temporomandibular joint

20 Individual Vertebrae The following views are vertebrae from the human spinal column Some are neck vertebrae and others are mid- and lower-back vertebrae Most vertebrae consist (are made up of) the same parts

21 Cervical Vertebrae – C1 and C2 Superior View What are the names for C1 and C2? Answer: C1=Atlas and C2=Axis What is unique about these two vertebrae? Answer: They articulate for head nod and pivot What is the difference between C1 and all other vertebrae? Answer: C1 has no body or spinous process – it is basically a ring

22 C1 and C2 Lets see, we said that C 1 was called what? Hint: Maps of the world are also known as this Answer: Atlas And the name for C2? Hint: The earth spins on this Answer: Axis C1 is shaped like this piece of jewelry. Answer: a ring

23 Cervical Vertebrae – C1 and C2 Superior View continued… Do you recognize view #1? Answer: C1-7 Cervical Vertebrae Do you recognize view #6? Answer: Spinous process of Axis Do you recognize view #7? Answer: Transverse process of Axis Do you recognize view #9? Answer: Body of Axis

24 Name views 1, 6, 7, and 9 Cervical vertebrae 1-7 Spinous process of axis Transverse process of axis Body of axis Axis is your 2 nd neck vertebrae

25 Cervical Vertebrae C3-7, Superior View Do you recognize view #1? Answer: C1-7 Cervical Vertebrae Do you recognize view #2? Answer: Spinous process Do you recognize view #6? Answer: Transverse process Do you recognize view #7? Answer: Body Do you recognize view #9? Answer: Vertebral foramen

26 Thoracic Vertebra – Superior View How many thoracic vertebrae are in the human body? Answer: 12 (T1-12) T1-12 lie between the cervical and lumbar regions and attached to what bones? Answer: ribs The articular processes project up and down from the left and right sides of the vertebral arch and form joints. What are these joints called? Answer: Facet joints

27 Thoracic Vertebra – Superior View continued… Do you know view #4? Answer: Spinous process Do you know view #5? Answer: Vertebral body Do you know View #6? Answer; Vertebral foramen Numbers 3 and 7 are facet joints Did you notice that all vertebrae except C1 and 2 are practically the same?

28 Lumbar Vertebra – Superior View How many lumbar vertebrae are in the human body? Answer: five (L1-5) Do you know view #3? Answer: Spinous process Do you know view #7? Answer: Body Do you know view #8? Answer: Transverse process

29 Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae Each thoracic vertebrae, like most all vertebrae, have similar structures: a body, vertebral arch, spinous process, pair of transverse processes and two pairs of articular processes Lumbar vertebrae are the largest in the body. Their large size directly relates to weight-bearing responsibilities

30 The Spinal Column Can you name views #1-5? Answers: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx What directional view is this spine facing? Answer: posterior Can you name views #6-9? #6: Transverse process; #7: Spinous processes; #8: C2/Axis; #9: C1/Atlas

31 Spinal Column Articulations The vertebral column is flexible due to its many articulations Although acting as a single unit, it is really the sum of many small movements (at joints between the vertebrae) Each vertebra forms three separate joints with the vertebra above or below it: with a pair of facet joints and a single anterior intervertebral joint T1-10 articulate with rib pairs 1-10

32 Spinal Column continued… Do you know the directional view we are looking at now? Answer: lateral Is this view a left or right view? Answer: left Again, can you name the five regions of the human spinal column? Answer: 1.Cervical 2.Thoracic 3.Lumbar 4.Sacrum 5.Coccyx

33 Spinal Column continued… Do you know what view #1 represents? Answer: Intervertebral disks Do you know what #4 represents? Answer: Lumbar vertebrae Do you know what #2 and #3 represent? Answer: #2=sacrum and #3=coccyx

34 The Following are Arms and Legs. They Include: Humerus Radius Ulna Femur Tibia Fibula Talus

35 Extremities – Legs Can you name view #13? Answer: Talus bones Can you name view #14? Answer: Fibula Can you name view #15? Answer: Tibia Can you name view #16? Patella Can you name view #17? Answer: Femur

36 Talus Bone Although considered a foot bone, the talus articulates with the tibia and fibula at the ankle joint We will learn more about the feet and hands later in term 3

37 Extremities -- Arms Can you differentiate between the front and back view of these arm photos? Explain. Answer: Left is front and Right is back view. Ribs show on front and scapula shows on back Can you name view #2? Answer: Humerus Can you name view #3? Answer: radius Can you name view # 4? Answer: Ulna

38 Lets Name the Arm and Leg Bones Again Humerus, our upper arm Radius, our lower arm Ulna, also our lower arm Femur, our upper leg Tibia, our lower leg Fibula, also our lower leg Talus, a foot/ankle bone

39 Next, The Pelvic Our pelvic consists of the following: Sacroiliac joint Greater sciatic foramen Femur Ischium Coccyx Sacrospinous ligament Ilium

40 Pelvic Can you name view #1? Answer: Sacroiliac joint Can you name view #3? Answer: Greater sciatic foramen Can you name view #4? Answer: Femur Can you name view #5? Answer: Ischium Can you name view #8 Answer: Coccyx Can you name view #9? Answer: Sacrospinous ligament Can you name view #11? Answer: Ilium

41 Pelvic continued… How can you tell this is an anterior view of the pelvic? Answer: rings and body of vertebrae can be seen Name view #1. Answer: Iliac crest Name view #2. Answer: Anterior superior iliac spine Name view #6. Answer: Ischium Name view #10. Answer: Coccyx Name view #12. Answer: Sacrum Name view #14. Answer: Ilium

42 Pelvic Articulation with Femur Can you identify view #1? Answer: Head of the femur Can you identify view #2? Answer: Ligament of head of femur Note that the ligament has been cut to reveal the socket where the head of the femur fits into Can you identify view #3? Answer: Ischium Can you identify view #6? Answer: Ilium

43 Coming Soon!!! Thoracic Region

44 Please Pronounce the Following 1.Cranium 2.Mandible 3.Parietal bone 4.Temporal bone 5.Mental foramen 6.Mandible 7.Maxilla 8.Zygomatic bone 9.Frontal bone 10.Neurocranium

45 Please Say the Following: 11. Sagittal suture 12. Lambdoid suture 13. Coronal suture 14. Articulation 15. Cervical 16. Thoracic 17. Lumbar 18. Sacrum 19. Coccyx 20. Spinous process

46 Say these: 21. Atlas 22. Axis 23. Vertebral foramen 24. Humerus 25. Radius 26. Ulna 27. Femur 28. Tibia 29. Fibula 30. Talus


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