2 DEFINITIONSAnatomy – the study of the structures of the body (ex.- names of bones)Physiology – the study of the functions of these structures (ex.- role of bones in the musculoskeletal system)
3 ANATOMICAL POSITIONALL descriptions of the body are based on anatomical position. When referring to anatomical position, that means the person is:StandingFacing toward youArms at their sidesPalms toward you
4 PLANES OF THE BODYSagittal (lateral) – divides the body into right and left sides
5 PLANES OF THE BODYFrontal (coronal) - plane that divides the body into frontand back portionsTransverse (horizontal) - plane that divides the body into upper and lower portions
6 POSITIONAL & DIRECTIONAL TERMS Ventral – front or belly sideAnterior – situated in frontSuperior – above, toward the headCephalic – toward the headProximal – near the midline or beginning of a structureMedial – toward, near the midline
7 POSITIONAL & DIRECTIONAL TERMS Dorsal – back of body or organPosterior – situated in backInferior – below, toward the feetCaudal – toward lower part of bodyLateral – away from the midlineDistal – farthest from midline or beginning of a structure
8 POSITIONAL & DIRECTIONAL TERMS Remember: ALL terms are used in relation to what body part they are being compared to Example: The ankle is ( ) to the knee?
9 BODY CAVITIESSpaces within the body that contain and protect internal organsDorsal Cavities (back of the body):Cranial - contains brain, pituitary glandSpinal - nerves, spinal cord
10 BODY CAVITIES Ventral Cavities (front of the body): Thoracic - contains heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus gland, aortaAbdominal - stomach, small & large intestine, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladderPelvic - portion of large & small intestine, rectum, urinary bladder, urethra, ureters, uterus, vagina10
11 DIVISIONS OF THE ABDOMEN RUQLUQRLQLLQRUQ – right upper quadrantRLQ – right lower quadrantLUQ – left upper quadrantLLQ – left lower quadrantAbdominopelvic area is divided into four quadrantsAssessment findings, organs, etc… are usually described by the quadrant they are located in
12 ORGANS IN THE QUADRANTS OF THE ABDOMINOPELVIC AREA RUQ - liver, gallbladder,part of pancreas, part ofsmall & large intestineLUQ - liver, stomach,spleen, part of pancreas,part of small & large intestine
13 ORGANS IN THE QUADRANTS OF THE ABDOMINOPELVIC AREA RLQ - part of small and large intestine, right ovary & fallopiantube, right ureter, andappendixLLQ - part of small andlarge intestine, left ovary & fallopian tube, left ureter13
14 ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS Named for the PATIENT’s side of body (i.e. his right or left, NOT yours)Right hypochondriacEpigastricLeft hypochondriacRight lumbarUmbilicalLeft lumbarRight inguinalHypogastricLeft inguinal
15 ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS Right LeftHypochondriac Epigastric HypochondriacRight LeftLumbar Umbilical LumbarInguinal Hypogastric Inguinal
16 BODY CAVITIESThe peritoneum is a membrane surrounding the organs in the abdominal cavity.The retoperitoneal (retro- = behind) area is behind the peritoneum and contains the kidneys
17 We are playing the “Bug Slapper” game! Time to Practice!!!We are playing the “Bug Slapper” game!