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Medical Terminology Lesson 2: Anatomy and Physiology.

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1 Medical Terminology Lesson 2: Anatomy and Physiology

2 Anatomical Position Used when describing positions and relationships of structures in the human body Describes the position of the body standing erect with arms at the side of the body, palms facing forward, eyes looking straight ahead Legs are parallel with feet and toes are pointing forward Assumption that person is always in anatomical position even if body or parts of the body are in other positions

3 Critical Thinking Question 1.Why is anatomical position important in medicine?

4 Body Planes Coronal or frontal Horizontal or transverse Sagittal Used to assist in describing the body and its parts Imagine slicing through the body at various angles

5 Planes of the body: coronal or frontal, transverse, and midsagittal.

6 Sagittal Plane Vertical plane Runs lengthwise from front to back Divides the body and its parts into left and right portions Right and left sides do not have to be equal

7 Frontal Plane Also known as coronal Divides the body into front and back positions Vertical lengthwise plane running from side to side

8 Critical Thinking Question 1.What is an example of when you might discuss something in terms of a plane?

9 Transverse Plane Horizontal plane Crosswise plane that runs parallel to the ground Imaginary cut that divides the body and its parts into upper and lower portions

10 Directional Terms Assist medical personnel in position or location of patient’s complaint Help to describe one process, organ, or system as it relates to another They are listed in pairs that have opposite meanings in the following table

11 Directional Anatomical Terms

12 Terms for Describing Body Position Superior or cephalic =More toward the head, or above another structure Inferior or caudal = More toward the feet or tail, or below another structure Anterior or ventral More toward the front or belly-side of the body

13 Terms for Describing Body Position Posterior or dorsal =More toward the back or spinal cord side of the body Medial =Refers to the middle or near the middle of the body or the structure Lateral =Refers to the side Apex =Tip or summit of an organ Base =Bottom or lower part of an organ Proximal =Located nearer to the point of attachment to the body

14 Terms for Describing Body Position Distal = Located farther away from the point of attachment to the body Superficial =More toward the surface of the body Deep =Further away from the surface of the body Supine =The body lying horizontally and facing upward Prone =The body lying horizontally and facing downward

15 Supine Position

16 Prone Position

17 Body Cavities The body has many open spaces or cavities

18 Body Cavities

19 Body Cavities and Their Major Organs Cavity Dorsal Cavities Cranial Cavity Spinal Cavity Major Organs Brain Spinal Cord Ventral Cavities Thoracic CavityPleural Cavity: Lungs Pericardial Cavity: Heart Mediastinum: Heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, aorta Abdominopelvic Cavity Abdominal Cavity Pelvic Cavity Stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and portions of the small intestines and colon Female: Uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina Male: Prostate gland, seminal vesicles, portion of the vas deferens

20 The Abdominopelvic Region

21 Right upper quadrant (RUQ): Contains majority of the liver, gallbladder, small portion of pancreas, small intestines, and colon Right lower quadrant (RLQ): Contains small intestines and colon, right ovary and fallopian tube, appendix, and right ureter Left upper quadrant (LUQ): Contains small portion of liver, spleen, stomach, majority of pancreas, small intestines, and colon Left lower quadrant (LLQ): Contains small intestines and colon, left ovary and fallopian tube, and left ureter

22 Word Building Relating to Body Structure Combining FormSuffixMed. TermDefinition abdomin/o-alabdominalpertaining to the abdomen caud/o-alcaudalpertaining to the tail cervic/o-alcervicalpertaining to the neck dist/o-adistalpertaining to away epitheli/o-alepithelialpertaining to the epithelium infer/o-iorinferiorpertaining to below proxim/o-alproximalpertaining to near spin/o-alspinalpertaining to the spine system/o-icsystemicpertaining to systems

23 Abbreviations Relating to Body Structure

24 Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organization of the Body Cells come together to form tissues Tissues come together to form organs Organs come together to form systems Systems come together to form organisms

25 Organs Composed of several types of tissue Work together as a unit Perform special functions Example: – The stomach contains: Muscle fibers Nerve tissues Epithelial tissue

26 Try It For Yourself! Don’t Use Your Book! What do the following words mean? abdomin/o anter/o caud/o cephal/o cervic/o crani/o dist/o pertaining to the abdomen pertaining to the skull pertaining to the neck pertaining to the head pertaining to the tail pertaining to the front pertaining to away

27 Try It For Yourself! Don’t Use Your Book! What do the following words mean? dors/o epitheli/o infer/o later/o medi/o muscul/o neur/o pertaining to the spinal cord side pertaining to muscles pertaining to the middle pertaining to the side pertaining to below pertaining to the epithelium pertaining to nerves

28 Try It For Yourself! Don’t Use Your Book! What do the following words mean? pelv/o poster/o proxim/o somat/o spin/o thorac/o viscer/o pertaining to the pelvis pertaining to the chest pertaining to the spine pertaining to the body pertaining to near pertaining to the back pertaining to internal organs

29 Try It For Yourself! Don’t Use Your Book! What do the following words mean? AP GI GU lat LLQ MS RLQ anteroposterior musculoskeletal left lower quadrant lateral genitourinary gastrointestinal right lower quadrant


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