Presentation on theme: "THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR Events that led to the South seceding and the beginning of the Civil War."— Presentation transcript:
THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR Events that led to the South seceding and the beginning of the Civil War
Passed by Henry Clay Three parts 1.Missouri would be slave 2. Maine would be free. 3. All new states north of the 36 degree latitude would be free and south would be slave. The Missouri Compromise 1820 By Henry Clay Compromises over Slavery
Conflicting views 1844 – conflicts over annexation of Texas Wilmot Proviso – Senator Wilmot attempted to ban slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico Southerners disagreed John C. Calhoun – proposed that Congress did NOT have the power to ban slavery
1848- Debates led to a new political party Called The Free Soil Party promising Free-soil, speech, labor, and free men. Did not win presidential race, but several seats in Congress
By 1850 there were 15 slave states and 15 free states. California wanted to enter as a free state. (New Mexico, Oregon, Utah)
North and South divided on parts of Clays plan Stephen Douglas divided Clays plan into 5 separate bills – voted on and passed individually 1.Allowed California to be free (north) 2. New Mexico Territory open to slavery. (south) 3.Stronger fugitive slave laws. (south) 4.Slave trade to be ended in District of Columbia (DC) (North) 5. Slavery would continue in DC (South). Compromise of 1850 (written by Henry Clay
Passed in Required people to help capture and return slaves. Those who didnt could be put in jail or fined Many Northerners refused to cooperate The Fugitive Slave Act
Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Toms Cabin 1852 About the evils of slavery and was circulated throughout the North and other countries. Uncle Toms Cabin
KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT Kansas and Nebraska both lay north of the 36 degree line and were not included in the Compromise of When they applied for statehood it stirred up trouble again.
Passed in 1854 People would decide for themselves whether to be free or slave. Called popular sovereignty. Kansas-Nebraska Act
Both proslavery and anti-slavery people rushed to Kansas to influence the peoples vote Border ruffians - came in and voted illegally in favor of slavery Kansas became a slave state Anti-slavery people refused and set up their own government. Conflict in Kansas/Bleeding Kansas
Two governments in Kansas. One for and the other against it. The two forces, fought and many people were killed. (First time blood was shed concerning slavery.) Fighting continued for months. Retailiation led by John Brown at Pottawatomie Creek Massacre Conflict in Congress – Rep. Preston Brooks beats Senator Charles Sumner with a cane over opposing views Bleeding Kansas
Dred Scott - a Missouri slave who moved with his owner from the South to live for a time in Illinois, a place where slavery was illegal The Dred Scott Case 1857
When Dred Scotts owner died, he sued for his freedom claiming that he had lived on free soil The judge declared Scott was property and did not have any rights. Also declared because slaves were property, nobody had the constitutional right to make slavery illegal. The Court Case
The Birth of the Republican Party 1854 – Antislavery Whigs and Antil Slavery Democrates joined Free-Soilers (Free- soil, speech, labor, and free men.)to form Republican party -antislavery as their platform
1858 – Lincoln(R) and Douglas (D) ran against each other for Illinois Senate seat in Freeport Illinois First time slavery was the center of debates Lincoln – thought slavery was morally wrong, but only sought to end the SPREAD of it (not ending it where it already existed) Douglas – sought popular sovereignty for new states, Freeport Doctrine Douglas wins, but Lincoln becomes known / Lincoln Douglas Debates
John Brown led a group of whites and free African Americans in a raid on an arsenal at Harpers Ferry Va. The aim was to arm slaves and spark a slave uprising. John Brown
The plan failed and he was captured. He was found guilty of treason and hanged. Remembered as a martyr. This led to an even farther gap between the North and the South John Brown – Hero or murderer?
Democrat Party split votes ( Steven Douglass, Breckinridge, Bell, ) Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln. (Northern States) Lincoln wasnt even on the ballot in the South Lincoln won because Democrats were so divided The Election of 1860
1.SECTIONIALISM- extreme loyalty to one part of the country. Loyalty to your state and/or the South. 2.STATES RIGHTS – The states should have the right to govern themselves if they choose. The government violated the Constitution, therefore the states should have the right to leave the Union Why Secession - The 3 Ss
3. SLAVERY- The South believed that their way of life was very different from the North; they needed slaves for their economy to survive.
South Carolina – first, November By February 1861, six other states left Seceding from the Union
Warm-up Read What do you think on page and answer numbers 1- 3
A SOUTHERN GOVERNMENT February leaders set up a new government. Capital- Richmond Virginia. The Confederate States of America. Jefferson Davis - President.
FORT SUMTER Fort Sumter was a federally owned fort in South Carolina – short on supplies Lincoln ordered supplies to the fort. The Confederates took Lincolns actions as a threat and began attacking Fort Sumter before the supplies could arrive – April Right after four more states seceeded The Civil War Begins