Presentation on theme: "THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR"— Presentation transcript:
1THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR Events that led to the South seceding and the beginning of the Civil War
2Compromises over Slavery 1820-1854 Passed by Henry ClayThree parts1.Missouri would be slave2. Maine would be free.3. All new states north of the 36 degree latitude would be free and south would be slave.“The Missouri Compromise”1820 By Henry Clay1st compromise to settle slavery issuue 1819, 11 north states and 12 southern states, Henry Clay, sectionalism- no interference from North
5Conflicting views 1844 – conflicts over annexation of Texas Wilmot Proviso – Senator Wilmot attempted to ban slavery in any territory acquired from MexicoSoutherners disagreedJohn C. Calhoun – proposed that Congress did NOT have the power to ban slavery
61848- Debates led to a new political party Called The Free Soil Partypromising “Free-soil, speech, labor, and free men.”Did not win presidential race, but several seats in Congress
7By 1850 there were 15 slave states and 15 free states. California wanted to enter as a free state. (New Mexico, Oregon, Utah)Big debate – Wilmot Privso- no slavery – Free soil pary- Southerners talked of seceding,
9Compromise of 1850 (written by Henry Clay North and South divided on parts of Clay’s planStephen Douglas divided Clay’s plan into 5 separate bills – voted on and passed individually1.Allowed California to be free (north)2. New Mexico Territory open to slavery. (south)3.Stronger fugitive slave laws. (south)4.Slave trade to be ended in District of Columbia (DC) (North)5. Slavery would continue in DC (South).Compromise of 1850 (written by Henry ClayThis was the only way to save the Union.
10Passed in 1850. Required people to help capture and return slaves. Those who didn’t could be put in jail or finedMany Northerners refused to cooperateThe Fugitive Slave Act
11Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 About the evils of slavery and was circulated throughout the North and other countries.Uncle Tom’s Cabin
13KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACTKansas and Nebraska both lay north of the 36 degree line and were not included in the Compromise of When they applied for statehood it stirred up trouble again.
14Kansas-Nebraska ActPassed in 1854People would decide for themselves whether to be free or slave. Called popular sovereignty.
15Conflict in Kansas/Bleeding Kansas Both proslavery and anti-slavery people rushed to Kansas to influence the people’s voteBorder ruffians - came in and voted illegally in favor of slaveryKansas became a slave stateAnti-slavery people refused and set up their own government.
16Two governments in Kansas. One for and the other against it. The two forces, fought and many people were killed. (First time blood was shed concerning slavery.) Fighting continued for months.Retailiation led by John Brown at Pottawatomie Creek MassacreConflict in Congress – Rep. Preston Brooks beats Senator Charles Sumner with a cane over opposing viewsBleeding Kansas
17The Dred Scott Case 1857Dred Scott - a Missouri slave who moved with his owner from the South to live for a time in Illinois, a place where slavery was illegal
18When Dred Scott’s owner died, he sued for his freedom claiming that he had lived on free soil The judge declared Scott was property and did not have any rights.Also declared because slaves were property, nobody had the constitutional right to make slavery illegal.The Court Case
19The Birth of the Republican Party1854 – Antislavery Whigs and Antil Slavery Democrates joined Free-Soilers (Free-soil, speech, labor, and free men.)to form Republican party -antislavery as their platform
20/ Lincoln Douglas Debates 1858 – Lincoln(R) and Douglas (D) ran against each other for Illinois Senate seat in Freeport IllinoisFirst time slavery was the center of debatesLincoln – thought slavery was morally wrong, but only sought to end the SPREAD of it (not ending it where it already existed)Douglas – sought popular sovereignty for new states, Freeport DoctrineDouglas wins, but Lincoln becomes known
26Democrat Party split votes (Steven Douglass, Breckinridge, Bell, ) Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln. (Northern States)Lincoln wasn’t even on the ballot in the SouthLincoln won because Democrats were so dividedThe Election of 1860
28Why Secession- The 3 S’sSECTIONIALISM- extreme loyalty to one part of the country. Loyalty to your state and/or the South.STATES RIGHTS – The states should have the right to govern themselves if they choose. The government violated the Constitution, therefore the states should have the right to leave the Union
293. SLAVERY- The South believed that their way of life was very different from the North; they needed slaves for their economy to survive.
30Seceding from the Union South Carolina –first, NovemberBy February 1861, six other states left
31Warm-upRead “What do you think on page and answer numbers 1-3
32A SOUTHERN GOVERNMENT February 4 1861 leaders set up a new government. Capital- Richmond Virginia.The Confederate States of America.Jefferson Davis -President.
34FORT SUMTERFort Sumter was a federally owned fort in South Carolina – short on suppliesLincoln ordered supplies to the fort.The Confederates took Lincoln’s actions as a threat and began attacking Fort Sumter before the supplies could arrive – AprilRight after four more states seceededThe Civil War Begins