Presentation on theme: "Teaching About STDs This presentation is intended to be used to train teachers, school nurses and County Health Department educators."— Presentation transcript:
1 Teaching About STDs This presentation is intended to be used to train teachers, school nurses and County Health Department educators.
2 This Florida version was adapted from the original by members of: The original slide presentation was developed by:Susie McIntyre, MLSHIV/AIDS ProgramPublic Health-Seattle & King County206/205-STDS (7837)This Florida version was adapted from the original by members of:Florida Departments of Education and Healthfor information contact:Sherese J. Bleechington, Corrections Specialist DOH Bureau of HIV/AIDS Phone (850) X 2611OrKsena Zipperer, HIV/AIDS Prevention Education CoordinatorUSF Healthy Schools Project/Florida Department of EducationPhone (850)This presentation was reviewed for accuracy by the Florida Department of Health Bureau of HIV/AIDSCarlos Alvarez Education Review PanelFor training purposes only
3 Elements of effective programs: Tailoring message to the age and experience of the audience;Promote abstinence as the expected standard for youth;Focus on risky sexual behavior;Sound theoretical foundation;Provision of basic facts about avoiding risks of unprotected sex;Acknowledgement of social pressures to have sex; andPractice in communication, negotiation and refusal skills.
4 Key Teaching Points Youth are at risk for STDs. STDs are preventable. STDs are transmitted by unprotected anal, oral or vaginal sex, or skin-to-skin contact.Sexually active youth should be tested and treated for STDs every 3 months per CDC guidelines.
5 Youth are at risk for STDs 2010 Florida STD data indicate young people ages account for approximately 66.2% of STD infections.Ages account for 29.9% of STD infections.Florida’s 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey showed that approximately 350,000 (48.2%) of high school students had ever had sex. (Rate for seniors is higher).In 2011, approximately 322,100 Florida students (43.4%) had ever had oral sex.Among the 245,400 Florida students who had sexual intercourse during the past three months before the survey, approximately 154,700 (64.3%) used a condom the last time they had intercourse.In 2011, of all the Chlamydia cases in Florida (male and female) 23,713 cases were reported at a rate of 1,973.9 persons between ages 15 and 19.
6 Key Teaching Points Youth are at risk for STDs. STDs are preventable. STDs are transmitted by unprotected anal, oral or vaginal sex.Sexually active youth should be tested and treated for STDs every 3 months per CDC guidelines.
7 Prevention Abstinence Mutual monogamy with uninfected partner Limited sexual contact (non-penetrative)Condoms - correct and consistent useReduce number of sexual partnersTalk with new partners about risk reductionTreatment of curable STDs, regular PAP test,vaccinateAvoid sex if you have symptoms of an STDNotify recent partners if you have an STDGet tested and know your status
8 Condom EffectivenessWARNING: Condoms may not fully protect you or your partner from getting herpes or HPV. Condoms are not as effective at preventing herpes or HPV transmission as they are at preventing the transmission of other sexually transmitted diseases. You may have sores or viral shedding in the genital region which may not be covered by or protected by condoms (e.g., labia, the scrotum).
9 Intact Male condoms are 82-98% effective at preventing pregnancy. Condom EffectivenessIntact latex condoms do NOT allow air, water, viruses, or other organisms such as bacteria to pass through.Intact Male condoms are 82-98% effective at preventing pregnancy.(CDC“The extreme importance of using condoms consistently and correctly is emphasized by a study of 563 discordant couples in Europe. Among the 44 couples who used condoms inconsistently, 6 of the uninfected partners became infected. In contrast, among the 24 couples who reported consistent condom use, none of the uninfected partners became infected.”(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV/AIDS Prevention Training Bulletin, February, 1993.)
10 Key Teaching Points Youth are at risk for STDs. STDs are preventable. STDs are transmitted by unprotected anal, oral or vaginal sex.Sexually active youth should be tested and treated for STDs every 3 months per CDC guidelines.
11 Two Kinds of Sexual Transmission 1) Skin to Skin2) Body FluidInfected/infestedskin+Contact withsusceptibleÞtransmissionB-FBody Fluid(blood, semen,vaginal fluids& breast milk)+Entry into Bodyneedle, open skin,mucous membrane)Þtransmission
13 HIV and other STDs are connected. Same risk behaviorsInfections increase transmissionSTDs increase susceptibility to HIVSTDs increase probability of contracting HIVFeelings of vulnerability and personal concern
14 Key Teaching Points Youth are at risk for STDs. STDs are preventable. STDs are transmitted by unprotected anal, oral or vaginal sex.Sexually active youth should be tested and treated for STDs every 3 months per CDC guidelines.
15 Sexually active youth should be tested and treated for STDs. Many STDs do not have symptoms.Untreated STDs can have serious consequences including, but not limited to:PainCancerInfertilityEctopic pregnancyMental illnessDeathWhere can your students get tested?* Add local health department and other testing site contact information here.
18 Syphilis (reportable) PrimaryChancre (firm, round, small, andpainless) appears at site ofinfection and heals without treatmentTransmission: skin-to-skin contact; mother-to-infantSymptoms: (at left)Time to onset: daysPregnancy: perinatal infection may cause blindness or infant deathDiagnosis: blood testsTreatment: antibiotics very effectiveSecondaryOther symptoms appear-- rashes, flu-likesymptoms such as fever, fatigue,and swollen lymph glandsLatent PhaseSometimes called the “hidden” phasebecause infection continueswith no obvious signs or symptomsLate PhaseDamage to nervoussystem and death
19 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) EpididymitisSymptoms:Testicular pain and tendernessShould be considered an emergency if the onset of pain is sudden or pain is severeComplications:SterilityTreatment: antibioticsPelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)Symptoms:Symptoms may be mild, but complications are serious!Pain in lower abdomenFeverBleeding between periodsDischarge and/or odorComplications:Ectopic pregnancy, chronic pain, maternal death, infertilityTreatment: antibiotics
20 Bacterial Vaginosis Caused by overgrowth of normal bacteria (BV is not always sexually transmitted)Symptoms: abnormal vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor; discharge, if present, is usually white or gray; burning during urination or vaginal itchingTime to Onset: variesTreatment: antibiotics or vaginal cream
21 Vaginitis “Vaginal Infection” Includes:Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)Trichomonas (parasite)Yeast infections (fungi)Diagnosis of all vaginitis confirmed by microscopic examination
22 Viral STDs: Genital herpes, Genital Warts, Hepatitis A, B and C, and HIV
24 Genital Herpes (HSV) Transmission: skin to skin; mother-to-baby Symptoms: Often no symptoms for those with symptoms most common symptoms are painful blisters and sores. Sometimes NO blisters are present and the virus can still be transmitted.Time to onset: 2-20 days (times for subsequent outbreaks vary)Pregnancy: 5% transmission when lesions presentDiagnosis: culture, antibody testTreatment: symptom relief; antivirals effective
25 HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) “Genital Warts” Transmission: skin to skin contact; not dependent on visible wartsSymptoms: Genital warts usually appear as small bumps or groups of bumps, usually in the genital area (including perineum and anus); some strains cause no visible symptoms.Time to onset: 1-20 monthsPregnancy: perinatal infection possibleDiagnosis: observation, PAP detects cervical cell changes (but does not diagnose “genital warts”)Treatment: remove visible warts via surgery and/or acid treatment (TCA-Trichloroacetic acid or BCA-Bichloroacetic acid). Gardacil vaccine is available for free through the County Health Departments for individuals who meet treatment age guidelines.
26 HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) “Genital Warts” More than 30 Types of HPV are sexually transmitted4 types related to cervical cancer and other less common cancers such as cancer of the vulva, vagina, anus, and penisGenital Warts
28 HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus H - Human - virus can only infect human beingsI - Immunodeficiency - failure of the body’s immune system to work properlyV - Virus - one of its characteristics is that it is incapable of reproducing by itself. It reproduces by taking over the machinery of the human cell.
29 AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS is the most serious stage of HIV infection. It results from the destruction of the infected person's immune system.A- Acquired: passed from one person to anotherI- Immune: the body’s defense system against diseaseD- Deficiency: lack/shortage of or breakdownS- Syndrome: a combination of symptoms and diseases
30 HIV FactsA person infected with HIV may not show symptoms for five to ten years. People who look completely healthy can still have HIV.HIV can ALWAYS be passed to others, even if they have no symptoms of AIDS.Once HIV begins to destroy the body’s immune system, the affected person becomes at risk for opportunistic infections which can result in death.
31 How is HIV/AIDS contracted ? The BIG Three : Exchange of Bodily FluidsSexual Contact (vaginal, oral, anal); does not include casual kissing (unless open mouth sores are present)Sharing hypodermic needles/syringes through IV drug use, tattooing, and body piercingMother to infant transmission: In utero exchange, during birth, or through breast-feeding after birthALSO, Less commonly (and now very rarely in countries where blood is screened for HIV antibodies), through transfusions of infected blood or blood clotting factors
32 How can you protect yourself? ABSTINENCE is the only certain way to protect yourself against HIV and other STDs.MUTUAL monogamy in your relationships after you have both been tested.SAFER sex- Nobody has a body to die for.If you have sex, LATEX CONDOMS are the most effective protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Use a POLYURETHENE CONDOM if you are allergic to latex.Natural membranes (like lambskin) have small microscopic holes that can let STDs through.Novelty condoms (like ones that glow in the dark) should not be used.Don’t use oil-based lubrication because it will cause the condom to tear. Use water-based lubricants.If you have oral sex, use a dental dam or a condom cut in half.AVOID drug use
33 You can’t get HIV by: 1. Sitting next to someone 2. Shaking hands, giving a hug or dry kissing*3. Using restrooms, water coolers or telephones4. Eating in a restaurant or cafeteria5. Swimming in a pool or using hot tubs6. Being bitten by an insectDonating blood* Kissing can spread other STDs (sexually transmitted diseases), such as herpes.
34 Florida HIV/AIDS Hotline 1-800-FLA-AIDS English Language HotlineSIDA Spanish Language Hotline1-800-AIDS-101 Creole Language Hotline TDD/TTY Hotline
36 Trichomonas, aka “Trich” (parasite) Can affect men and womenTransmission: sexual contact, exchange of body fluidsSymptoms:-women: itching, burning, “fishy” discharge (green, yellow, or gray)-men: usually asymptomatic, but may experience irritation inside the penis, mild discharge, or slight burning after urinationTreatment: oral medication
37 Yeast infection (fungi) Can be present in men and women(Yeast infections are not always sexually transmitted)Caused by overgrowth of common vaginal fungiSymptoms: itching, burning, in women a “cottage cheese” discharge maybe presentTreatment: vaginal cream or oral medication
38 Scabies (parasite) Transmission: sexual contact, clothes, touching Symptoms: itchy rash, especially at nightTime to onset: 2-6 weeks from first exposureDiagnosis: microscopic examination of skin scrapingsTreatment: creams and lotions
39 Pubic Lice, aka “Crabs” (parasite) Transmission: sexual contact, clothes, sheetsSymptoms: redness and itching in hairy areasDiagnosis: seen easily by naked eyeTreatment: over the counter medications and/or lotion, clothes/sheets washed in hot water
40 Resources http://www.floridashealth.com/disease_ctrl/aids/index.html Default.asp(Visit this site for photos of patients who exhibit symptoms of advanced infections. The photos are graphic, and are to be used by adults for training purposes.)http: //www.septc.org