2Sexually Transmitted Disease 90 % of STD’s occur among persons from 15 – 29.There are over 25 known STDs, some of which are incurable.Risks increase:More sexual partnersAlcohol and drug use
3Curable and Incurable STDs Viral (incurable)AIDSGenital herpesGenital wartsHepatitis BBacterial (curable)ChlamydiaGonorrheaSyphilis
4What is HIV and AIDS?AIDS Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is caused by HIV Human Immunodeficiency VirusHIV attacks lymphocytes (white blood cells) called T-cells.The reduction of T-cells results in a weakened immune systemThe AIDS diagnosis is made once opportunistic diseases occur.Many AIDS victims can survive for many years with the use of antiretroviral therapy, which delays AIDS progression
5HIV SymptomsThere may be no symptoms for up to 10 to 12 years until the immune system is suppressed enough to cause problemsSymptoms:Chronic fatigueSwollen lymph glandUnexplained weight lossFevers, and night sweats.
6How Is HIV Transmitted Through bodily fluids : Blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk.Sexual intercourse with an HIV carrier.Sharing of hypodermic needles.Pregnant women to their fetusMother to their baby (breast milk).Blood transfusions (Rare)
7HIV: What is Safe? Safe Casual contact. Hugging. Eating after. Massage.Masturbation.Insects.UnsafeVaginal sex.Anal sex.Oral sex.Deep kissing.Multiple partners.Sharing needles.
8Should I Be Tested? Be tested if: You have had any STD. Shared drug needles.Had sex with a prostitute.Had sex with a man who had sex with another man.Had unprotected sex with three or more partners.Remember:Could take 3 to 6 months before antibodies appear in blood.No symptoms during incubation.Wait to be tested until 6 months with no risk behavior.
9Genital Herpes: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) No Cure TransmissionDirect contact with infectious blisters or sores usually on genitals, anus, or mouth.Incubation2-12 daysTypical SymptomsPainful blisters or sores form (heal in 2 to 4 weeks).Sores may reappear throughout lifeReoccurrences stimulated by stress, fatigue, and illnessDiagnosisVisual examination and tissue culture.TreatmentMedications (acyclovir)DangerCan be fatal to infants who acquire the disease.
11Genital Warts: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) No Cure TransmissionDirect contact with visible or non visible warts in genital area.IncubationRange from 1-8 months.Typical SymptomsMay have no symptomsFlat or round bumps with cauliflowerlike appearanceDiagnosisVisual examination, tissue cultures. Pap smears can detect warts not visible. Common cause of cervical cancer.TreatmentFreezing, laser, chemical prep, and surgery. DangerHPV causes cervical cancer. Pap smears are important.
13Hepatitis B: Virus No Cure TransmissionVaginal, anal and oral sex, sharing needles, and mother to baby.Incubation1 – 9 monthsPeople can carry the virus with no active infection (and spread to others)Typical SymptomsNoneFlu-like feelings, itching, and joint pain.DiagnosisBlood test.TreatmentA vaccine is available.DangersProgressive destruction of liver cells, cirrhosis, or liver cancer.
15Chlamydia: Bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis TransmissionSexual contact and hand to eye.Incubation7-14 days or longer.Typical SymptomsUp to 80% of women and 50% of men have no symptoms.Discharge, itching, burning, painful urination, and flu-like symptoms.DiagnosisCulture tests of dischargeTreatmentCurable with certain antibiotics (not penicillin).DangerIf untreated, can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.
17Gonorrhea: Bacteria Transmission Direct contact between mucous membranes, i.e., genitals, anus, and mouth.Incubation2-14 days.Typical SymptomsNo symptoms 80% of women and 20% of menDischarge, burning and itching, painful urination, or a mild sore throat. Genitals, anus, throat, and eyesDiagnosisMicroscopic observation of discharge. Culture from site.TreatmentCurable with antibiotics. Some strains may become resistant.DangerCan cause PID and sterility in men and women.
19Syphilis: Bacteria Treponema pallidum TransmissionDirect contact with infectious sore or rashes.Incubation1 to 12 weeks before primary stage.Typical Symptoms/StagesPrimary: painless chancre soreIf not treated leads to secondary syphilisSecondary: 2 weeks to 6 months after chancre.Rash, flu-like symptoms, patchy hair loss.If not treated leads to latent syphilisLatentNo longer infectious to carry bacteria and lead to tertiary.Tertiary Stage:3 to 40 years later, damage to body organs such as the brain and heart, paralysis and death.DiagnosisPhysical examination, microscopic test from sore, blood tests.TreatmentCured with antibiotics.
22Prevention of STDs Abstinence Avoid sexual intercourse. Stay Faithful Monogamy with one uninfected partnerChoose Lower Risk BehaviorsNo fluid exchangeTake PrecautionsLimit the number of sex partnersUse a latex condomAvoid Drug UseMind-altering drugs, including alcoholIf you are sexually activeObserve your partners for sores, discharge or needle tractsGet an STD exam every 6 months.