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Sparta and Athens. Sparta Beginnings Descendents of the Dorians Located in Peloponnesus (peninsula of southern Greece Did not found overseas colonies.

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Presentation on theme: "Sparta and Athens. Sparta Beginnings Descendents of the Dorians Located in Peloponnesus (peninsula of southern Greece Did not found overseas colonies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sparta and Athens

2 Sparta Beginnings Descendents of the Dorians Located in Peloponnesus (peninsula of southern Greece Did not found overseas colonies Invaded/enslaved neighboring city-states True Spartans were outnumbered Revolt of the Helots (slaves) lasted 30 years and turned Sparta into military society Descendents of the Dorians Located in Peloponnesus (peninsula of southern Greece Did not found overseas colonies Invaded/enslaved neighboring city-states True Spartans were outnumbered Revolt of the Helots (slaves) lasted 30 years and turned Sparta into military society

3 Sparta Government Two kings ruled jointly with little power Assembly: passed laws and made decisions concerning war and peace Five overseers of administration Council of Elders who proposed laws and acted as Supreme Court Two kings ruled jointly with little power Assembly: passed laws and made decisions concerning war and peace Five overseers of administration Council of Elders who proposed laws and acted as Supreme Court

4 Sparta Military Emphasis on military/athletic ability Military school by age 7 Soldier by age 20 Retire from military by age 60 Exceptional soldiers who defended Greece from outside invaders Emphasis on military/athletic ability Military school by age 7 Soldier by age 20 Retire from military by age 60 Exceptional soldiers who defended Greece from outside invaders

5 Sparta Women Schooled, sports Could own property, move freely, express opinions Could not take part in the government Schooled, sports Could own property, move freely, express opinions Could not take part in the government

6 Sparta Results of Militarism Suspicious of new ideas that might bring change Lagged behind economically Discouraged trade Tried to remain self-reliant Shunned philosophy, science, art Suspicious of new ideas that might bring change Lagged behind economically Discouraged trade Tried to remain self-reliant Shunned philosophy, science, art

7 Spartan Warriors

8 Athens Beginnings Located in Attica, peninsula of central Greece Descended from the Mycenaeans 600s BC -Farmers, merchants, artisans pushed for economic and political reform Eventually citizenship included all free Athenian-born men, regardless of class or land ownership Metics -free foreigners Located in Attica, peninsula of central Greece Descended from the Mycenaeans 600s BC -Farmers, merchants, artisans pushed for economic and political reform Eventually citizenship included all free Athenian-born men, regardless of class or land ownership Metics -free foreigners

9 Athens Education Boys formal education, girls had none Text: The Illiad and the Odyssy School attended from age Two years of military service Tutors for the wealthy Boys formal education, girls had none Text: The Illiad and the Odyssy School attended from age Two years of military service Tutors for the wealthy

10 Athenian Leaders Draco (621 BC) Code of Laws -very severe - Draconian -Laws written so aristocrats could not dictate what was legal or not Code of Laws -very severe - Draconian -Laws written so aristocrats could not dictate what was legal or not

11 Solon (594 BC) poet/lawmaker Improved economy -canceled land debt -freed debtors from prison -placed land limits -cash crops promoted trade -industry where fathers teach sons skills -extended citizenship to foreign artisans poet/lawmaker Improved economy -canceled land debt -freed debtors from prison -placed land limits -cash crops promoted trade -industry where fathers teach sons skills -extended citizenship to foreign artisans

12 Peisistratus (546 BC) Divided large land estates among landless Extended citizenship to men who did not own land Poor provided with loans Public works for poor Divided large land estates among landless Extended citizenship to men who did not own land Poor provided with loans Public works for poor

13 Cleisthenes (508 BC) Instituted series of laws that established democracy (affected 20% -excluded women, slaves, foreign born) Equal treatment under the law Freedom of speech Jury system (20 to 1001) -kept jurors from being influenced -majority vote -ostracism: exclusion/exile Council of 500 -daily government business -any citizen (chosen by lot so not to favor rich) Instituted series of laws that established democracy (affected 20% -excluded women, slaves, foreign born) Equal treatment under the law Freedom of speech Jury system (20 to 1001) -kept jurors from being influenced -majority vote -ostracism: exclusion/exile Council of 500 -daily government business -any citizen (chosen by lot so not to favor rich)

14 Athens/Sparta Differences


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