Presentation on theme: "Civil War 1861-1865. Causes of the Civil War – Federalism/Strong Union (North) versus individual states rights and limited central government (South)."— Presentation transcript:
Civil War 1861-1865
Causes of the Civil War – Federalism/Strong Union (North) versus individual states rights and limited central government (South). – Issue of Slavery – Compromises werent working Missouri Compromise: Maine free state/Missouri slave state. Territories wanted statehood. BALANCE! Moral Issue vs. Property/Ownership Issue
Causes - Continued Southern States begin to succeed from the Union. – February, 1860: Declare themselves a new nation: the Confederate States of America – Drafted a constitution similar to the US constitution except that states were independent and guaranteed the existence of slavery. – Jefferson Davis elected Confederate President. – South Carolina first state to succeed from the Union.
War Begins US Fort Sumter in South Carolina – Davis didnt want Federal soldiers in the south. Confederacy takes control of the Fort and first shots fired starting the Civil War on April 12, 1861. Turning Point: Page 306 In 1861, the western regions of Virginia split with the eastern portion politically, and the two were never reconciled as a single state again. In 1863, the western region was admitted to the Union as a new separate state.
Civil War: 1861-1865 NORTH – UNION (GREY) Believed in preservation of the Union - a strong central government and ending slavery. Generals President Abe Lincoln George B. McClellan Strong Navy – Warships & Shipyards Higher population to draw troops from. 90% of nations factories were in the north. More railroad tracks to distribute food and supplies. Financing the War: Controlled national treasury. Large reserves of cash Legal Tender Act of 1862: National currency & issue paper money (Greenbacks) War Strategy Anaconda Plan: Union blockade Confederate ports and send gunboats down the Mississippi to divide the conspiracy and deplete their resources. (Like an anaconda snake that slowly strangles its prey to death.) Ulysses S. Grant George Meade Key PeopleAdvantages
Civil War: 1861-1865 SOUTH – CONFEDERATE (BLUE) Believed in states rights and a limited central governments power. Wanted slavery to continue. Generals President Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strong military tradition and training. 7 of the 8 military colleges were in the south. Weaknesses Weak central government – hard to conduct war. Financing the War: Inability to raise money through taxes (refused to pay). Printed worthless money led to 9,000% inflation. War Strategy A defensive war of attrition and force the North to use up their resources and get tired of the war. Pick battles carefully and avoid large battles to avoid huge losses. Stonewall Jackson Less people, industry, railroads and resources. Key People Advantages
Seceding States, 1860-61
Civil War Technology New bullets/better accuracy Telegraph/better & faster communication Balloons/better way to spy on the other side Ironclads/armor-plated steamships-more solid Trench warfare developed
Civil War Key People
President Abraham Lincoln - 16 th President - Elected President 1860 - President during Civil War - Leader of the Union. - Emancipation Proclamation - Gettysburg Address/2-Minute speech given on November 19, 1863 -Assassinated on April 14, 1865
Robert E. Lee - One of the most respected senior officers in the United States Army. - Decided to stay loyal to his home state of Virginia - which had seceded from the Union. -Commander of the Confederate Army
Civil War Key Terms/Words
Key Words/Terms Greenbacks: This is what the Legal Tender Acts national currency and government issued money was nicknamed. Copperheads: Nickname for the Peace Democrats. Opposed the war and called for reuniting the states through negotiation. Seen as traitors by the Republicans.
Key Words/Terms Conscription: Forcing people into military service. Writs of Habeas Corpus: The suspension of a persons right not be imprisoned unless charged with a crime and given a trial. Attrition: The wearing down of one side by the other side through exhaustion of soldiers and resources.