2Causes of the Civil WarFederalism/Strong Union (North) versus individual states rights and limited central government (South).Issue of Slavery – Compromises weren’t workingMissouri Compromise: Maine free state/Missouri slave state. Territories wanted statehood. BALANCE!Moral Issue vs. Property/Ownership Issue
3Causes - Continued Southern States begin to succeed from the Union. February, 1860: Declare themselves a new nation: the Confederate States of AmericaDrafted a constitution similar to the US constitution except that states were independent and guaranteed the existence of slavery.Jefferson Davis elected Confederate President.South Carolina first state to succeed from the Union.
4War BeginsUS Fort Sumter in South Carolina – Davis didn’t want Federal soldiers in the south. Confederacy takes control of the Fort and first shots fired starting the Civil War on April 12, 1861.Turning Point: Page 306In 1861, the western regions of Virginia split with the eastern portion politically, and the two were never reconciled as a single state again. In 1863, the western region was admitted to the Union as a new separate state.
5NORTH – UNION (GREY) Civil War: 1861-1865 Believed in preservation of the Union - a strong central government and ending slavery.GeneralsPresidentAbe LincolnGeorge B. McClellanStrong Navy –Warships & ShipyardsHigher population to draw troops from.90% of nation’s factories were in the north.More railroad tracks to distribute food and supplies.Financing the War:Controlled national treasury.Large reserves of cashLegal Tender Act of 1862: National currency & issue paper money (Greenbacks)War StrategyAnaconda Plan: Union blockade Confederate ports and send gunboats down the Mississippi to divide the conspiracy and deplete their resources. (Like an anaconda snake that slowly strangles its prey to death.)Ulysses S. GrantGeorge MeadeKey PeopleAdvantages
6SOUTH – CONFEDERATE (BLUE) Key People Advantages Civil War: 1861-1865 Believed in states’ rights and a limited central government’s power. Wanted slavery to continue.GeneralsPresidentJefferson DavisRobert E. LeeStrong military tradition and training.7 of the 8 military colleges were in the south.WeaknessesWeak central government – hard to conduct war.Financing the War:Inability to raise money through taxes (refused to pay).Printed worthless money led to 9,000% inflation.War StrategyA defensive war of attrition and force the North to use up their resources and get tired of the war. Pick battles carefully and avoid large battles to avoid huge losses.Stonewall JacksonLess people, industry, railroads and resources.Advantages
8Civil War Technology New bullets/better accuracy Telegraph/better & faster communicationBalloons/better way to spy on the other sideIronclads/armor-plated steamships-more solidTrench warfare developed
10President Abraham Lincoln 16th PresidentElected President 1860President during Civil WarLeader of the Union.Emancipation ProclamationGettysburg Address/2-Minute speech given on November 19, 1863Assassinated on April 14, 1865
11Robert E. LeeOne of the most respected senior officers in the United States Army.Decided to stay loyal to his home state of Virginia - which had seceded from the Union.Commander of the Confederate Army
14Key Words/TermsGreenbacks: This is what the Legal Tender Act’s national currency and government issued money was nicknamed.Copperheads: Nickname for the Peace Democrats. Opposed the war and called for reuniting the states through negotiation. Seen as traitors by the Republicans.
15Key Words/Terms Conscription: Forcing people into military service. Writs of Habeas Corpus: The suspension of a person’s right not be imprisoned unless charged with a crime and given a trial.Attrition: The wearing down of one side by the other side through exhaustion of soldiers and resources.