A. Growth of Republican Party Political party created in 1854 for those who didn’t want slavery to expand Other main party was the Democrats Party candidate in presidential election of 1860: Abraham Lincoln
B. Election of 1860 Northern Democrats vs. Southern Democrats vs. Republicans Democrats split over slavery Douglas vs. Breckinridge vs. Lincoln Lincoln – slavery is a moral evil How did the South view Lincoln? Official Republican platform: South can keep slavery, but no expansion of slavery in the West
C. Party Platform “…we deny the authority of Congress, of a territorial legislature, or of any individuals, to give legal existence to slavery in any territory of the United States.” “[Speaking of any territory of the United States]…all citizens of the U.S. have an equal right to settle with their property in the Territory, without their rights, either of person or property, being … impaired…” Which quote belongs to which party? Do you feel that either side is willing to compromise?
D. Results Results: Who won? Southern response: South Carolina becomes the first state to secede from the Union. Secede- state declares itself independent from the U.S.
E. Southern Secession 7 states leave the Union by February 1861 Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana and Texas Created their own country: Confederate States of America Elected Jefferson Davis as president
F. Fort Sumter Located outside of Charleston, South Carolina – U.S. fort April 12, 1861 - Confederate forces opened fire on the fort and took the fort Officially the beginning of the Civil War Slave states choose: NC, Virginia and Tennessee join Confederacy Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri stay in Union
A. Terminology North – known as the Union, wore navy blue uniforms South – known as the Confederacy, wore gray uniforms Term “Civil War” is historically inaccurate: Civil war is a war within one country Confederacy was technically a separate country Common terms heard here: “The War Between the States”, “The War of Northern Aggression”
B. Robert E. Lee Head commander of the Confederate army First choice of Lincoln for the Union army, but he did not want to fight against his home state of Virginia Very respected leader
C. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson General in the Confederate army Considered Lee’s right hand man Known for great military tactics What happened to him? Happened right before Gettysburg – many believed that had he lived, the South would have won the war
D. George McClellan First head commander of Union forces Known for being too cautious and hesitant to attack Fired twice by Lincoln
E. Ulysses S. Grant Started as Union general in the west Assumed command of Union forces in 1864 General who accepted surrender of Southern forces
F. William T. Sherman General in the Union army Known for “Sherman’s March” Went up the coast from Atlanta and burned and destroyed Southern cities Trapped Lee between himself and Grant before Lee surrendered
Guided Practice Using pages 314-319, identify the strengths and weaknesses of the North and the South. Organize this into a T-Chart. Your T-Chart should include information about the following for EACH side: Financial situation Weapon/factory production Population size Military skill Transportation/railroad access NorthSouth Strengths Weaknesses If one is a strength of one side, it is a weakness of the other side. BE SURE EXPLAIN WHY EACH ONE OF THESE CATEGORIES IS A STRENGTH OR WEAKNESS FOR THE NORTH OR SOUTH IN 1-2 SENTENCES.