Presentation on theme: "THE CIVIL WAR Chapter 11. THE OPPOSING SIDES Ch 11 Sec 1."— Presentation transcript:
THE CIVIL WAR Chapter 11
THE OPPOSING SIDES Ch 11 Sec 1
Objectives Assess the strengths & weaknesses of each region’s economy. Contrast the political situations of the Union & the Confederacy.
Choosing Sides o Robert E. Lee was senior officer with the US Army. o Virginia seceded he stayed true to his state. o 1/3 of the Union’s military officers chose the Confederacy
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES
UNION ADVANTAGES -More than 2X railroad - larger population -More $ in banks -Functioning government - Strong navy
CONFEDERATE ADVANTAGES -Better military leaders (7 out of 8 military colleges in the South) -Defensive war-did not have to win, just not lose -Better soldiers
Industry & Agriculture- North Made most of the nations clothing Most pig iron Most firearms factories All gunpowder
Industry & Agriculture- South One foundry that could produce iron (Tredegar Iron Works) No facility for gunpowder Produce all its own food, but couldn’t distribute it Only one east/west rail line (Memphis to Chattanooga)
Discussion What military advantages did the North and South have at the start of the war?
Financing the War North controlled national treasury, tariffs, & could easily borrow $. Many people took gold & silver out of banks, so Congress passes Legal Tender Act- created a national currency (paper $) “greenback”
Financing the War Southern economy was bad, & got worse as the war continued Southern planters were in debt & couldn’t buy bonds
Financing the War South had to tax citizens- people refused to pay South had to print paper $ to pay bills- caused inflation
Discussion What financial advantages did the North have over the South?
Party Politics Many Republicans were abolitionists Lincoln wanted to preserve Union, no matter what
My paramount objective in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not to either save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it, and if I could save the Union by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that. ~Abraham Lincoln
Party Politics 2 groups in Democrat Party- War Democrats- supported the war & restore the Union and preserve slavery Copperheads (Peace Democrats) opposed war, reunite peacefully.
Party Politics Conscription- forcing people into military service (the draft) Democrats opposed the draft, Republicans supported it
Party Politics Lincoln suspended habeas corpus for anyone that openly criticized the war effort or supported the South
Discussion Who did Lincoln suspend habeas corpus for?
Relations with Europe USA did not want Europe to interfere or recognize the CSA Wanted Europe to honor blockade
Relations with Europe CSA wanted recognition Wanted British Navy to break blockade Europe (especially England) needed Southern cotton Fr. & GB both promised to recognize CSA and give aide IF they won a major battle
Discussion At the outbreak of the war, what did Confederates want from Europeans?
FIRST MODERN WAR
Military Technology & Tactics Military firsts: Submarine (Hunley) Machine gun (Gatling gun) Trench warfare (Petersburg)
Military Technology & Tactics Military leaders organized soldiers into tight columns Concentrate fire When troops got close, they charged with bayonets
Military Technology & Tactics New guns invented More accurate at greater ranges Defensive tactics changed Defenders got in trenches or behind barricades High casualties
Southern Strategy War of Attrition- wear North down Didn’t have to win, just not lose
Union Strategy Blockaded the South Send gunboats down Mississippi River to divide South “Anaconda Plan”
Discussion Why was the Confederate’s defensive war of attrition unsuccessful?