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THE CIVIL WAR Chapter 11. THE OPPOSING SIDES Ch 11 Sec 1.

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Presentation on theme: "THE CIVIL WAR Chapter 11. THE OPPOSING SIDES Ch 11 Sec 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE CIVIL WAR Chapter 11

2 THE OPPOSING SIDES Ch 11 Sec 1

3 Objectives  Assess the strengths & weaknesses of each region’s economy.  Contrast the political situations of the Union & the Confederacy.

4 Choosing Sides o Robert E. Lee was senior officer with the US Army. o Virginia seceded he stayed true to his state. o 1/3 of the Union’s military officers chose the Confederacy

5 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES

6 UNION ADVANTAGES -More than 2X railroad - larger population -More $ in banks -Functioning government - Strong navy

7 CONFEDERATE ADVANTAGES -Better military leaders (7 out of 8 military colleges in the South) -Defensive war-did not have to win, just not lose -Better soldiers

8 Industry & Agriculture- North  Made most of the nations clothing  Most pig iron  Most firearms factories  All gunpowder

9 Industry & Agriculture- South  One foundry that could produce iron (Tredegar Iron Works)  No facility for gunpowder  Produce all its own food, but couldn’t distribute it  Only one east/west rail line (Memphis to Chattanooga)

10 Discussion  What military advantages did the North and South have at the start of the war?

11 Financing the War  North controlled national treasury, tariffs, & could easily borrow $.  Many people took gold & silver out of banks, so Congress passes Legal Tender Act- created a national currency (paper $) “greenback”

12 Financing the War  Southern economy was bad, & got worse as the war continued  Southern planters were in debt & couldn’t buy bonds

13 Financing the War  South had to tax citizens- people refused to pay  South had to print paper $ to pay bills- caused inflation

14 Discussion  What financial advantages did the North have over the South?

15 NORTHERN POLITICS

16 Party Politics  Many Republicans were abolitionists  Lincoln wanted to preserve Union, no matter what

17 My paramount objective in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not to either save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it, and if I could save the Union by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that. ~Abraham Lincoln

18 Party Politics  2 groups in Democrat Party-  War Democrats- supported the war & restore the Union and preserve slavery  Copperheads (Peace Democrats) opposed war, reunite peacefully.

19 Party Politics  Conscription- forcing people into military service (the draft)  Democrats opposed the draft, Republicans supported it

20 Party Politics  Lincoln suspended habeas corpus for anyone that openly criticized the war effort or supported the South

21 Discussion  Who did Lincoln suspend habeas corpus for?

22 DIPLOMATIC CHALLENGES

23 Relations with Europe  USA did not want Europe to interfere or recognize the CSA  Wanted Europe to honor blockade

24 Relations with Europe  CSA wanted recognition  Wanted British Navy to break blockade  Europe (especially England) needed Southern cotton  Fr. & GB both promised to recognize CSA and give aide IF they won a major battle

25 Discussion  At the outbreak of the war, what did Confederates want from Europeans?

26 FIRST MODERN WAR

27 Military Technology & Tactics  Military firsts:  Submarine (Hunley)  Machine gun (Gatling gun)  Trench warfare (Petersburg)

28 Military Technology & Tactics  Military leaders organized soldiers into tight columns  Concentrate fire  When troops got close, they charged with bayonets

29 Military Technology & Tactics  New guns invented  More accurate at greater ranges  Defensive tactics changed  Defenders got in trenches or behind barricades  High casualties

30 Southern Strategy  War of Attrition- wear North down  Didn’t have to win, just not lose

31 Union Strategy  Blockaded the South  Send gunboats down Mississippi River to divide South  “Anaconda Plan”

32 Discussion  Why was the Confederate’s defensive war of attrition unsuccessful?


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