Presentation on theme: "Goal 3: Crisis, Civil War, and Reconstruction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Goal 3: Crisis, Civil War, and Reconstruction U.S. HistoryThe Civil WarGoal 3: Crisis, Civil War, and Reconstruction
2 The federal troops at Fort Sumter began to run out of supplies and were on the brink of starvation. Lincoln not wanting to anger the remaining Southern states in the Union decided not to supply them to avoid violence with the South.
3 Fort SumterJefferson Davis, President of the Confederate states issued an attack on Fort Sumter.April 12, 1861, citizens of Charleston were awaken to blasts of cannons firing on the fort. After 4, 000 rounds were fired, the federal troops surrendered without a single lost of life.This was the start of the Civil War.
4 The Civil War BeginsWhen Lincoln called for enlistments in the Federal Army after the Fort Sumter attack; Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina seceded.Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, and Kentucky (slaves states) stayed in the Union—counties in the west of Virginia broke away and formed West Virginia
9 Advantages Southern Advantages Profits from “King Cotton” provided money for the war effortGreat military leaders & a strong military traditionSoldiers fighting for a “cause” who were highly motivated
10 Northern AdvantagesLarger population so more fighting powerMore factories to produce war goodsMore food productionExtensive railroad system to transport goods and troopsLincoln was a skilled leader
11 Anaconda PlanThe Union devised a three part plan to conquer the South:The Union navy would blockade Southern portsControl the Mississippi River to cut the Confederacy in halfCapture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Va.
13 Battle of Bull RunThe Battle of Bull Run was fought on July 21, 1861 in VirginiaConfederacy led by Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (he stood firm against the Union like a “stone wall”)The South won!This was a major morale boost
14 ShilohThe Battle of Shiloh was fought on April 7, 1862 in Tennessee (considered a “western” battle)It is significant because it showed the importance of sending out scouts, digging trenches, and building fortsThe battle was a draw
15 AntietamThe Battle of Antietam was on September 17, 1862 in Antietam, MarylandIt was the bloodiest single day battle in US HistoryNorthern victoryLincoln fired Union commander George McClellan because he was too cautious and not aggressive enough
16 GettysburgThe Battle of Gettysburg was on July 1-3, 1863 in Gettysburg, PennsylvaniaThis was turning point of the war, because the South never won another battleGettysburg Address by Lincoln united the nation after this war
17 VicksburgThe Battle of Vicksburg was fought on July 4, 1863 in Vicksburg, MississippiUnion victory!The Union accomplished its goal of cutting the Confederacy in two by seizing the Mississippi River (Anaconda Plan)
18 Appomattox Court House On April 9, 1865, Southern commander Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia
19 William Tecumseh Sherman Sherman was a Union commanderBelieved in the concept of total war (fighting the civilian population, because they helped support military effort)Sherman marched Union troops through the South, to Atlanta, burning everything in his path
20 Effects of the Civil War Established the supremacy of federal authority over the statesEventually, slavery was abolished, through legislation (13th Amendment)No state would ever try to secede from the Union again
21 Emancipation Proclamation Jan. 1, 1863The Proclamation did not free any slaves immediately because it applied only to areas behind the Confederate line, outside Union control
22 Conscriptiona draft that would force certain members of the population to serve in the armyConfederacy Draft law 1862/Union Draft law 1863.Some Southerners said this was a “rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight” because Southern men could pay to have substitutes serve for them and slave owners with 20 or more slaves did not have to fight