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Educational Psychology Chapter 3 – Personal, Social and Emotional Development.

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1 Educational Psychology Chapter 3 – Personal, Social and Emotional Development

2 Erik Erikson’s Theory on Development  8 stages of development  Each stage represents a developmental “crisis” – conflict between a positive alternative and a potentially unhealthy alternative  Major decisions at the “crisis” has a lasting affect on self image and view of society

3 Erikson Stages 1 - 4 StagesApprox. AgeNotes 1. Basic Trust Birth to 12-18 months Infant must from trusting relationship or develop mistrust 2. Automony vs. shame/doubt 18 mths to 3 yrs Assume responsibility for self- care; initiative 3. Initiative vs. guilt3 to 6 yrs Maintain zest for activity yet understand all impulses cannot be acted upon 4. Industry vs. inferiority 6 to 12 yrs Eagerness to engage in productive work; child’s ability to move in-between worlds (e.g. academic, friends, etc); leads to confidence and competence

4 Erikson Stages 5-8 StagesApprox. AgeNotes 5. Identity vs. role confusion Adolescence Search for identity; may try different roles to see what they fit into 6. Intimacy vs. isolation Young adulthood Willingness to relate to another person on a deep level 7. Generativity vs. stagnation Middle Adulthood Extends ability to care to next generation; productivity and creativity are essential features 8. Ego integrity vs. despair Late Adulthood Consolidating one’s self and fully accepting its unique and unalterable history

5 Self-concept and Self- Esteem  Self-concept – composite of ideas, feelings and attitudes people have about themselves; a belief about who you are; a cognitive structure  Self-esteem – the value each of us places on our own characteristics, abilities and behaviors; an evaluation of who you are; an affective reaction  Collective self-esteem – influenced by group memberships

6 Understanding ourselves  Our self-concept and self-esteem become increasingly complex and abstract as we mature  Teachers can have a profound effect on both self- concept and –esteem  Adolescents tie this to physical appearance and social acceptance  Gender and ethnic issues are significant factors  Gender – by 9 th grade, girls lower perceptions of their abilities, compared to boys  Ethnic – majority of adolescents are secure in their own heritage and more respective of other’s heritages  Social-perspective-taking – eventually children learn that others have separate thoughts and identities, therefore separate feelings and perspectives

7 Moral Development  Start out with moral realism – absolute rules  Morality of cooperation – child realizes people make rules and change them  Kohlberg’s Theory – 3 levels  1) preconventional level – judgments based on self interests  2) conventional level – judgments based on traditional family value and social expectations  3) postconventional level – judgments based on more abstract and personal ethical principles  Criticized for favoring males  Gilligan – “Ethic of Care”  Individual moves from focus on self-interests to moral reasoning based on relationships, then to caring for all

8 Moral Development and Behavior  Friendships play significant role  Many programs have adopted themed curriculums to help students learn how to care  Influenced by internalization of rules (explanations) and by modeling by adult role-models  Cheating and Aggression are common moral behavioral issues to look out for

9 Socialization  2 biggest influences – family and school  Social pressures make kids grow up too fast; many teachers are shocked at “sophistication” at young age  Divorce – stress, economic hardships, moving & losing friends  Boys – higher rate of behavioral problems than girls  Girls – have trouble with men (trust)  As teachers, drop “your mother” or “your parents” and use “your family”

10 Challenges Facing Children: Physical Development  Puberty in adolescents  Boys, ages 12-18  Girls, ages 10-14  Early maturing  Boys – this is considered “good,” leads to higher social status  Girls – considered “bad,” different from other girls

11 Challenges Facing Children: Youth at Risk  Child Abuse  Required to report suspected incidents  Teenage Sexuality/Pregnancy  Eating Disorders  Drug Abuse  92% of HS seniors experience with alcohol; important to distinguish between experience and regular abuse  AIDS  Suicide  Look for changes in behavior or physical appearance – weight, interests (or lack of), work ethic, activity levels, eating, etc.

12 Food for Thought – as Teachers  Understand the stresses, challenges and influences all students may face  Understand that with increased maturity and age children can think more on a more abstract level  Beware of significant changes in a student’s behavior or physical appearance that may be a warning sign of stress  Follow suggestions that may be helpful in working with the students – avoid high pressure situations, provide opportunities to build self-esteem and learn to care for others

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