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Psychosocial Development

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Presentation on theme: "Psychosocial Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychosocial Development
Erik Erikson Psychosocial Development

2 Psychosocial Development
Proposed stages of personality development based on social stages of life Erikson’s stages focus on conflicts throughout our life spans and how we deal with and make decisions regarding those conflicts

3 The Stages of Development
Each is labeled according to possible outcomes, which are opposites Resolution of each stage is extremely important Erikson assumed most people would end up with a blending of the outcomes of these stages Erikson said the goal of adolescence was to attain ego identity, or a firm sense of what one stands for.

4 Importance of Ego Identity
Connecting skills learned in early childhood and adolescence with occupations in adult years Without a firm grasp on ego identity, one is likely to submit to peer pressure or become a perpetual follower

5 Trust vs. Mistrust (birth- 1 1/2 yrs)
At this stage we develop our sense of either trusting or mistrusting others Infants are totally dependent on others – learns to trust others At this stage the caregiver provides food, warmth, and the comfort of physical closeness.

6 Trust vs. Mistrust Outcomes
Adequate Resolution Basic sense of safety, security; ability to rely on others Inadequate Resolution Insecurity, anxiety, can not rely on others

7 Autonomy vs. Self-Doubt (1 1/2 – 3 yrs)
Child tries to become an individual by simple tasks such as walking, talking, using the bathroom Autonomy means the child has been able to master a few task on his/her own and therefore feels like a worthy individual

8 Autonomy vs. Self-Doubt Outcomes
Adequate Resolution Perception of self as agent; capable of controlling oneself Inadequate Resolution Feelings of inadequacy about self-control or control over events

9 Initiative vs. Guilt (3 – 6 yrs)
Child tries to take control of environment-choosing what the wear and what to eat

10 Initiative Guilt Parents should not The child must
scold instead of encourage belittle and ridicule children punish children for acting on their ideas convey to children that their ideas are not valuable or worthwhile The child must initiate activities Spend time imagining know their ideas, questions & concepts matter to others

11 Initiative vs. Guilt Outcomes
Adequate Resolution Confidence in oneself as being able to initiate or create Inadequate Resolution Feeling a lack of self-worth

12 Competency vs. Inferiority (6 – puberty)
School activities, sports, social affiliation is extremely important during these years We become interested in how things are made, how they work, and what they do Parents are no longer the only influence on stages

13 Competency vs. Inferiority Outcomes
Adequate Resolution Adequacy in basic social and intellectual skills; acceptance by peers Inadequate Resolution Lack of self-confidence, feelings of failure both academically and socially

14 Identity vs. Identity Role Confusion (13 – 18 yrs)
Seeks to answer “Who am I?” “Will someone love who I am?” “What is my role in life? Peers & group identity are important Confusion results if you fail to develop a sense of self

15 Identity vs. Identity Role Confusion Outcomes
Adequate Resolution Comfortable sense of self as a person, both unique and socially accepted Inadequate Resolution Sense of self as fragmented , shifted, unclear sense of self

16 Intimacy vs. Isolation (18 - 30 yrs)
Formation of permanent relationships Sharing on an intimate level Weeding out of social affiliations Loneliness results without intimacy

17 Intimacy vs. Isolation Outcomes
Adequate Resolution Capacity for closeness and commitment to others Inadequate Resolution Feelings of loneliness, separation; denial of intimacy needs

18 Generativity vs. Stagnation (30 – 65 yrs)
Person must give (generate) something important to the world If the individual does not feel a sense of generation, then he/she is psychologically at a stand-still (stagnation)

19 Generativity vs. Stagnation Outcomes
Adequate Resolution Focus on concern beyond oneself, to family, society, future generations Inadequate Resolution Self-indulgent concerns; lack of future orientation

20 Ego Integrity vs. Ego Despair ( from 65 yrs on)
Accept the end is near Find that life was worthwhile – Ego Integrity When one looks back and feels no sense of accomplishment – Ego Despair

21 Ego Integrity vs. Ego Despair Outcomes
Adequate Resolution Sense of wholeness; basic satisfaction with life Inadequate Resolution Feelings of futility, disappointment

22 Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1.5; trust or lack of trust) Autonomy vs. Self-Doubt (1.5-3; physical control) Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6; control of environment) Competency vs. Inferiority (6-P; social skills, peers) Identity vs. Identity Role Confusion (13-18; identity) Intimacy vs. Isolation (18-30; permanent relationships) Generativity vs. Stagnation (30-65; value of life) Ego-Integrity vs. Ego Despair (65- ?; meaningful life)

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