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Culture and Emotional Development Cultural differences in parenting practices and values contribute to differences in emotional expression. (e.g. empathy)

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Presentation on theme: "Culture and Emotional Development Cultural differences in parenting practices and values contribute to differences in emotional expression. (e.g. empathy)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Culture and Emotional Development Cultural differences in parenting practices and values contribute to differences in emotional expression. (e.g. empathy)

2 Culture and Emotional Development Parents’ ideas about the usefulness of particular emotions vary within subcultures of the major culture – (e.g. M others living in a dangerous neighborhoods more tolerant of aggression, especially in girls)

3 How Parents Socialize Their Children Parents socialize their children’s emotional development through: –Their expression of emotion with their children and other people (e.g. Expression of positive related to social competence, low aggression, high self-esteem; Negative expressions related behavioral problems and social and learning difficulties). Correlational!!! –Their reactions to their children’s expression of emotion –Their discussions with their children about emotion and the regulation of emotion

4 Depression by Gender and Age

5 Emotional Expression in Adolescence Is the gender difference genuine? Is it a difference in level of emotionality or expression? What factors might be underlying this gender difference?

6 Attachment

7 Themes: Nature and Nurture The Sociocultural Context Individual Differences

8 Historical Underpinnings 1930s and 1940s children raised in orphanages, or refugee camps during WWII or other institutions were, despite have their physical needs met… Seemed to have no concern for others Withdrawn, isolated Others overactive and abusive Physically and mentally retarded Sick, depressed, and more likely to die (37%) than at institutions with daily contact with mothers (0%)

9 Wire Mothers?

10 Wire Mother Results the monkeys spent significantly more time with the cloth mother (15 hours) than the wire mesh mother (2 hours), regardless of who provided the milk goes against behaviorism and psychoanalytic theories which treated ‘food’ as the only reinforcement important to children. emphasized the need to have emotional and psychological needs met in addition to physical needs

11 Harlow’s Wire Mother Experiment Video


13 Raised infant monkeys in isolation from birth When placed with other monkeys at 6 months they had severe disturbances (biting and rocking themselves, avoiding other monkeys, unable to communicate or learn from others, females had no interest in sex, if impregnated they did not know what to do with their babies (ignore, reject, or kill them) Weakness = total social isolation not just caregiver bond but… Strongly supports the view that normal development and social emotional competence is rooted in early social interactions Historical Underpinnings...Harlow’s Monkeys

14 Historical Underpinnings cont’d... Infants who had been allowed to develop a bond with mothers and then were separated showed signs of intense grief and depression Adoption--the earlier the better Led researchers to understand the importance of having their psychological /emotional needs met-- importance of attachment

15 What is Attachment? an emotional bond with a person that is enduring over time and in different contexts But are all attachments with caregivers the same? Are there different attachment patterns that lead to different outcomes in the child’s behavior?

16 individual differences in attachment Ainsworth, et al. hypothesized that differences in the quality of attachment relationships could be detected by the interaction between mother and infant, the infants reactions to separations and reunions with mother, and reactions to strangers The Strange Situation was designed to assess the degree of security between infant and caregiver

17 Strange Situation Video!

18 Patterns of Attachment Secure (about 65%) –Infants actively seek proximity to caregivers upon reunion –Communicate their feelings of stress and distress openly and then readily return to play Insecure-Avoidant (about 20%) (Group A) –Infants who do not seem distressed during separation and ignore caregiver upon return. (more angry and negative than other 2 groups) Insecure-Ambivalent (about 15%) (Group C) –Infants who become extremely distressed when the caregiver departs but are ambivalent or resistent on her return. They run to her but then arch away or push her. Disorganized/Disoriented (~5% of insecurely attached) –Changeable, confused behavior, exhibit fear toward mom but still approach

19 Harlow’s Wire Mother : Secure Base Video

20 what determines attachment style? the care-giving hypotheses “Secure” parenting Sensitivity (responding promptly, consistently, and appropriately) Positive attitutude, affectionate Support/attentiveness Stimulation “Avoidant” parenting Less of “secure” attributes Aversion to bodily contact Rejecting More angry and yet less emotional expression overall “Ambivalent” parenting Less of “secure” attributes anxious More evidence of difficult temperament

21 Attachment and Temperament Because of the correlational nature of the studies on parenting style and attachment can’t determine direction or if third variable E.g. child’s temperament could lead to changes in parenting style Or, the mom’s and infant’s behavior could correlate due to shared genes

22 Culture, Experience, and Attachment Northern Germany: Parents encourage children to be independent and discourage close ‘clingy’ behavior. More German babies show avoidant attachment than US babies. Intense separation anxiety (characteristic of ambivalent style) more common in Japan where caregivers rarely leave their children with substitute caregivers. Thus, child’s early experiences (amount of contact with strangers, day care etc) can explain some of the differences on the Strange Situation

23 Long Term Effects? Securely Attached –age 2-6. Better problem solvers (persistent and enthusiastic), more complex creative play, more positive emotions, cooperative and sympathetic, more attractive playmates. –age 11-15. Better social skills, better peer relations more likely to have more close friends Insecure –age 2-3. Socially and emotionally withdrawn, hesitant to initiate play behaviors with peers, less curious, less interested in learning. –age 11-15. Poor peer relations, fewer close friendships, more likely to have psychopathological symptoms. –Avoidant = more likely to display ‘deviant’ behaviors (disruption/disobedience) –Ambivalent = easily frustrated, less competent

24 Long Term Effects? Is this because of the importance of the very first interactions between caregiver and infant? Or because good parents tend to stay good parents and bad, bad…? Regardless of the “cause” intervention seems helpful

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